• From FB - The Comanches- Lords of the Plains Part 5:

    From a425couple@21:1/5 to All on Thu Oct 22 09:27:46 2020
    Joe CreadenThe Order of the Indian Wars
    4ithiSponsohredS ยท

    The Comanches- Lords of the Plains Part 5:
    Quanah Parker "Tell the White Chiefs the Kwahadies Are Warriors"
    In the early 1860's the Civil War not only stripped the forts of U.S.
    soldiers, but also sent about 60,000 Texans into the Confederate Army,
    leaving about 27,000 men to defend the entire state. The Comanches and
    Kiowas turned central Texas into a disaster area. Settlers were killed
    and their settlements reduced ruins. However, the Comanches had never
    replaced the losses they had suffered in the cholera epidemic in 1849
    and the Texas Ranger attacks that followed it. In 1867 the U.S.
    Government called a grand peace council with the Indians of the southern
    plains at Medicine Lodge Creek, Kansas. Many chiefs were willing to
    listen and were eager for the gifts that went with the talks. The
    Kwahadies and the Kotsotekas two of the strongest Comanche bands,
    disdained the peace talks and sent no representatives.
    Over a period of two weeks the peace commissioners presented their plans
    for the Comanches, Kiowas, Arapahoes, and Cheyennes: the tribes were to
    cede their lands, go to a reservation in Indian territory, and accept government guarantees. Ten Bears and nine other chiefs, more out of
    weariness than hope or conviction, signed the treaty. In debate over the
    treaty among the Comanches Quanah declared "My band is not going to live
    on the reservation. Tell the white chiefs that the Kwahadies are
    warriors." So the Kwahadies continued their fierce raiding and they
    would be attacked with a special fervor for breaking a treaty they had
    never agreed to.
    As Quanah was leading many raids, the rest of the Comanches went to
    the reservations. They soon became embittered by the government rations,
    the agents trying to teach them farming, and the intrusion of whites and eastern Indians who stole their livestock. Before the decade was out
    many Comanches were leading a double life: languishing on the
    reservation through the winter, then leaving in the spring to hunt
    buffalo and do some raiding with the holdout bands.
    In September of 1871 the Army sent the 30 year old Colonel Randall
    Mackenzie to invade the Staked Plains of the Comanches. Mackenzie and
    his men fought and pursued the Comanches led by Quanah into October. The
    Army was finally stopped on October 12th by a howling blizzard. It was a dismaying end to a frustrating mission, but Mackenzie learned valuable
    lessons about the Comanches and their highland refuge. By March of 1872 Mackenzie was back in the field again hunting the Comanches and the New Mexican traders who were supplying them with repeating rifles in
    exchange for stolen Texas cattle. Later in the year Mackenzie defeated
    the Kotsotekas at McClellan Creek at the edge of the Staked Plains. For
    awhile even the Kwahadies curtailed their raiding for fear of
    retribution; but in June of 1873 the Kwahadies resumed their raiding and
    they were pursued by Mackenzie again, and he kept the Comanches on the
    run. By 1874 white buffalo hunters showed up on the Texas plains in
    great numbers threatening the Indians food supply. In June of 1874
    Quanah and his warriors attacked the buffalo hunters at Adobe Walls (we
    posted on this battle previously) and were defeated.
    After Adobe Walls, the Indians scattered and vented their fury in wide
    ranging attacks across the plains from Texas to Colorado. The vengeful
    orgy was so violent the Washington sent out an ultimatum informing the
    tribes that all Indians who did not enroll at the reservation by August
    3rd would be attacked as hostiles. On September 28th Mackenzie attacked
    the Comanches at Palo Duro Canyon and defeated them (another battle we previously posted on.) After this battle, groups of Comanches and Kiowas
    began surrendering with the onset of the cold weather. Not until April
    of 1875 did the first Kwahadies straggle into the reservation, half
    starved and ill clad. Still, Quanah and some 400 of his people continued
    to hold out. (to be continued- Part 6 Quanah Parker: A Second Life)
    Sources: "Empire of the Summer Moon" by S.C. Gwynne and "The Great
    Chiefs" Time Life Books, text by Benjamin Capps.
    Photos: Google Images

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