• Viral images show niggers as anti-Asian perpetrators.

    From Prison Bitch Biden@21:1/5 to All on Mon Feb 28 03:06:36 2022
    XPost: alt.fan.rush-limbaugh, az.politics, alt.society.liberalism
    XPost: alt.politics.democrats, talk.politics.guns

    While news reports and social media have perpetuated the idea that
    anti-Asian violence is committed mostly by people of color, a new
    analysis shows the majority of attackers are white.

    Janelle Wong, a professor of American Studies at the University of
    Maryland, College Park, released analysis last week that drew on
    previously published studies on anti-Asian bias. She found official
    crime statistics and other studies revealed more than three-quarters
    of offenders of anti-Asian hate crimes and incidents, from both
    before and during the pandemic, have been white, contrary to many of
    the images circulating online.

    Wong told NBC Asian America that such dangerous misconceptions about
    who perpetrates anti-Asian hate incidents can have "long-term
    consequences for racial solidarity."

    "The way that the media is covering and the way that people are
    understanding anti-Asian hate at this moment, in some ways, draws
    attention to these long-standing anti-Asian biases in U.S. society,"
    Wong said. "But the racist kind of tropes that come along with it — especially that it's predominantly Black people attacking Asian
    Americans who are elderly — there's not really an empirical basis in

    Wong examined nine sources and four types of data about anti-Asian
    hate incidents, including from the reporting forum Stop AAPI Hate,
    Pew Research, as well as official law enforcement statistics, the
    majority of them spanning the year and a half when the #StopAAPIHate
    hashtag was trending. She found major contradictions in the
    prevailing narrative around perpetrators, victims, and the general
    environment of racism toward Asian Americans during the coronavirus
    pandemic. She said such misleading conclusions could be attributed
    to the lack of context around images, the failure to amplify all
    aspects of the data or misinterpretations of the research.

    A misread of a frequently cited study from this year, published in
    the American Journal of Criminal Justice, likely contributed to the
    spread of erroneous narratives, Wong said. The study, which examined
    hate crime data from 1992 to 2014, found that compared to anti-Black
    and anti-Latino hate crimes, a higher proportion of perpetrators of
    anti-Asian hate crimes were people of color. Still, 75 percent of
    perpetrators were white.

    Other studies confirm the findings, Wong wrote. She pointed to
    separate research from the University of Michigan Virulent Hate
    Project, which examined media reports about anti-Asian incidents
    last year and found that upward of 75 percentof news stories
    identified perpetrators as male and white in instances of physical
    or verbal assault and harassment when the race of the perpetrator
    was confirmed. Wong said the numbers could even be an underestimate.

    "This is really how crime is framed in the United States — it's
    framed as the source is Black," Wong said.

    Karthick Ramakrishnan, founder of AAPI Data, a data and civic
    engagement nonprofit group, for which Wong also works, said that the
    public's perception of perpetrators and victims is largely formed by
    the images that have been widely circulated — but that they aren't representative of most anti-Asian bias incidents. For example, the
    videos that have gone viral are more likely to be from low-income,
    urban areas where there is more surveillance, he said.

    "You have security camera videos that are more available and
    prevalent in certain types of urban settings. And so that's what's
    available to people in terms of sharing," Ramakrishnan said. "The
    videos are more viral than if it's something that doesn't have any
    imagery or video connected to it, like something that's happening in
    the suburbs, for example."

    When they are circulated, they play on a loop with no audio. Even
    though the videos alone don't provide much detail about what's
    happening, they dominate our perceptions, Ramakrishnan said.

    "There's just something so powerful about these visual images so
    that no matter what the social science might say, people believe
    their eyes and especially the images that get played on repeat now,"
    he said.

    Ramakrishnan said anti-Blackness among Asian Americans and the
    diaspora could also affect how such images are disseminated. Often,
    videos that confirm prejudices are shared not only on U.S. social
    networks but also on international messaging apps.

    "These kinds of images and narratives of racial tension — Black
    violence on Asian people — are getting shared in Asia, as well.
    There is a transnational component to it," he said. "Whatever aspect
    of anti-Black racism or racial prejudice that some Asian Americans
    might have will also matter, in terms of what ends up being more
    prominent, because these go to social networks, especially through
    social networks apps, as well."

    Wong said many erroneous assumptions persist about the identities of
    victims and the types of hate incidents they have confronted. She
    said there's a widely held belief that such incidents are generally
    violent, when studies show that most of the racism Asian Americans
    have faced because of the pandemic is verbal harassment or shunning.
    Wong said that although older Asian women are typically thought of
    as the victims of such crimes, research shows that about 7 percent
    of reported incidents have involved anyone over 60.

    Wong said that while any hate crime or incident is unacceptable, the astronomical increases often reported in headlines don't capture the
    full picture of anti-Asian hate. The baseline for anti-Asian hate
    crimes and incidents has been relatively low, meaning a small growth
    in the total number of hate incidents can lead to large percentage
    increases. For example, data indicate that the largest increase
    occurred in New York City, which jumped from three to 28 anti-Asian
    hate crimes from 2019 to 2020, about an 833 percent surge.
    Meanwhile, Sacramento, California, increased from one to eight
    anti-Asian crimes from 2019 to 2020 — a small jump in raw numbers
    that equates to an increase of 700 percent.

    "Even in jurisdictions reporting the most dramatic year-over-year
    increases in hate crimes, like New York City, the rate was lower
    than the proportion of Asian Americans in the population," Wong

    Asian Americans aren't the only racial group that has met challenges
    during the pandemic. Wong said official law enforcement statistics
    show that in the 26 largest jurisdictions, which include areas like
    New York City, anti-Asian hate crimes accounted for 6.3 percent of
    all reported hate crimes.

    Black Americans have long faced higher rates of hate crimes. Even
    though official 2019 law enforcement data show a drop in anti-Black
    hate crime reports, Black people were still, by far, the most
    targeted racial group, Wong said. That year, 58 percent of reported
    hate crimes were motivated by anti-Black bias, while a far smaller
    proportion, 4 percent, were motivated by anti-Asian bias. About 14
    percent were motivated by anti-Latino bias.

    Last year, when Asian Americans dealt with coronavirus-specific
    stereotypes, 27 percent of Asian Americans reported having ever
    experienced hate crimes or incidents, while 34 percent of Black
    Americans did, according to an AAPI Data survey.

    "People overestimate the degree to which they, individually, are
    likely to be the victim of the crime. And so what we're seeing right
    now, because there's so much media coverage — even though we see
    that Asian Americans account for, no matter how you cut it, a
    minority of the hate crimes in any place — they feel like they're
    the most likely to be attacked," she said.

    That isn't to say that increases haven't occurred or that verbal
    harassment and such incidents aren't of concern, Wong said. There
    has been a marked increase in discrimination toward Asian Americans
    that deserves attention. But selectively amplifying aspects of the
    issue or omitting context can further perpetuate dangerous
    stereotypes and break opportunities for solidarity among
    marginalized groups, she said. Ramakrishnan said that when people
    reach for policy solutions based on insufficient information, they
    may not solve the issue.

    Ramakrishnan called on the media and other institutions not only to
    add more context to information, but also to draw responsible
    conclusions from the data. He also emphasized that while the media
    are hyperfocused on anti-Asian crimes, Asian American and Pacific
    Islanders deal with a vast range of issues, including language
    barriers and immigration struggles, which aren't captured in
    coverage of pandemic racism.

    "Nuance is difficult to get people to rally around and pay attention
    to. Sensationalism is what gets attention. But hopefully, it's the
    nuance that keeps them there so they want to go deeper in their
    understanding," Ramakrishnan said. "I'm hopeful that what got a lot
    of people to care and pay attention were these hate incidents and
    horrific crimes but hoping that what keeps people interested is
    understanding the larger set of issues that affect these American
    Pacific Islanders."

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