
sdsdsdsds
From
carl eto@21:1/5 to
All on Sun Nov 26 09:48:01 2023
TABLE OF CONTENT
§ 1. Introduction
§ 2. Roemer
§ 3. Huygens
§ 4. Fresnel
§ 5. Oested
§ 6. Maxwell
§ 7. Michelson
§ 8. Kirchhoff
§ 11. Lenard
§ 12. Planck
§ 13. Einstein's Energy Quanta
§ 14. Einstein Inertial Mass
§ 15. Einstein Electrodynamics (SR)
§ 16. Minkowski
§ 17. Einstein's Electromagnetic Ether
§ 18. Relativity: Special and General Theory
§ 19. Einstein Ether
§ 20. Rutherford
§ 21. Bohr Atom
§ 22. Quantum Mechanics
§ 23. Heisenberg
§ 24. Quantum Electrodynamics
§ 25. String Theory
§ 19. Nuclear Energy
§ 26. Particle Physics
§ 27. Gravitation Physics
§ 28. Modern Astronomy
§ 29. NASA
§ 30. Climate Change
§ 30. Maxwell Equations
§ 31. Electromagnetic Wave Equations of Light
§ 32. Transmission and Reflection Equations
§ 33. Polarization
§ 34. Aperture Diffraction
§ 35. Optic Particle Theory
§ 36. Conclusion
§ 37. Reference
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From
carl eto@21:1/5 to
All on Sun Nov 26 09:49:52 2023
On Sunday, November 26, 2023 at 9:48:04 AM UTC8, carl eto wrote:
Upon the Analyze the Wave Theory of Light and its Affect on Modern Physics and Astronomy
November 24, 2023
This paper will analyze the wave theory of light and its affect on modern physics and astronomy. Fresnel depicts diffraction using interfering spherical waves produced by the motion of an ether, composed of matter, yet the ether does not exist (vacuum).
Maxwell introduces an electromagnetic theory of light based on Faraday's law since induction forms in vacuum but induction does not involve light and Maxwell's light wave is formed by the motion of an ether that does not exist. Hertz's radio waves are
used to justify Maxwell's theory but radio waves are also not luminous and an expanding electromagnetic field cannot form Newton's particle structure of light. Planck derives an energy element (hγ) that is depicted with the units of the kinetic
energy (g m2 / s2) since h = 6.55 . 1027 erg . s and erg = g m2 / s2 yet a photon is massless, and an expanding electromagnetic field cannot sustain a particle structure. Einstein's (1905) special relativity is used to justify Maxwell's
theory but altering the dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the fact that Faraday's induction effect is not emitting light nor is induction a particle effect. In particle physics, the Fermilab subatomic particles propagate through the
steel enclosure of the bubble chamber but subatomic particles that have a mass cannot propagate through steel. In astronomy, Kepler describes the Earth propagating around the Sun on an elliptical path yet seasons are not formed at the equator.
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From
carl eto@21:1/5 to
All on Sun Nov 26 11:14:35 2023
The ancient civilizations played an important role in the development of science, mathematics, and astronomy. The Egyptians (5000 BC  300 AD) derived the area equation of a triangle (Rhind 10057), and, in optics, the Egyptians believed the eye sent out
feelers that emanated from the eye and felt the object being viewed. The Babylonians (1894 BC  1595 BC) (Iraq) discovered the cosine of a right triangle using 15 different right triangles that dimensions and calculations were chiseled into a stone
tablet (Plimpton 322). Greeks scholar Archimedes (b. 287 BC) discovered the area equation of a circle using pi. In optic, the Greeks (1,200 BC  323 BC) believed the outer surface (simulacra) of the object peels off the object and propagates to the eye
then enters the eye forming the image of the object. Most, if not all, of the important Greek writings (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Parmenides, Aspasia, etc.) were saved by Middle Eastern scholars who hid the Greek writings in desert caves which were
inaccessible to the Roman army (27 BC  330 AD) that attempted to burn all of the important Greek writings.
The Middle Eastern scientific and mathematical advancements are the origin of European science. In the ninth century AD, Iraqi intellectuals studying the Greek writings resulted in the advent of the light ray theory. In Abū Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥā
q aṣṢabbāḥ alKindī (Kindi) (b. 801 AD) paper "De radiis stellarum", the theory of vision is described using light rays that interact with the eye and form vision. Iranian scholar and mathematician Muhammad Ibn Musa Al Khwarizmi (Quṭrubbaliyy)
(b. 780 AD) developed algebra in his book, "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing" (813 AD). In Ḥasan Ibn alHaytham (Alhazen) (b. 965) paper "Opticae Thesaurus", Alhazen enhances the light ray theory using the anatomy of the
eye where light rays interacting with the eye's lens and retina formed vision. In Syrian astronomer Abu alḤasan Alāʾ al‐Dīn bin Alī bin Ibrāhīm bin Muhammad bin alMatam alAnsari (Shatir) (b. 1304) paper, "The Final Quest Concerning the
Rectification of Principles" Shatir observed the celestial universe and described the Earth orbiting the Sun (fig 1). Galileo (b. 1564) used the design of the Middle Eastern handheld two lens optical magnifier in the construction of the astronomic
telescope. Kepler (b.1571) describes the Earth propagating around the Sun on an elliptical path yet seasons are not formed at the equator.
 SoupGateWin32 v1.05
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From
carl eto@21:1/5 to
All on Sun Nov 26 13:44:40 2023
Maxwell's (1864) electromagnetic theory of light based on Faraday's induction effect was introduced since induction forms in vacuum but Faraday's induction effect is not luminous, and Maxwell's theory is based on light waves formed by the motion of an
ether, composed of matter, yet the ether does not physically exist. The velocity of light is used to justify Maxwell's theory but the velocity of light does not change the fact that Faraday's induction effect is not radiating light. Poynting (1884)
supports Maxwell's theory by deriving an electromagnetic energy equation of light but Poynting's current wire is not emitting light. Hertz's (1887) radio waves are used to validate Maxwell's theory but radio waves are also not luminous. Lorentz (1899) is
supporting Maxwell's theory by transforming Maxwell's equations but altering the dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the fact that Faraday's induction effect is not producing light nor does Maxwell's ether exist. Lenard (1900  1902) proves
light is composed of particles which negates the continuity of Maxwell's electromagnetic field. Planck (1901) supports Maxwell's theory that Lenard invalidates where Planck derives an energy element that represents the energy of a waveparticle
electromagnetic photon but photons do not solve the continuity problem imposed by Lenard, and, an expanding electromagnetic field cannot sustain the particle structure of a photon. Plus, the ether that motion forms Planck's electromagnetic standing wave
that is used to quantize Maxwell's electromagnetic wave into a photon does not physically exist (vacuum). Also, when describing diffraction, waveparticle electromagnetic photons would be arbitrarily destroyed to form the dark fringes of the diffraction
pattern which violates energy conservation and invalidates the waveparticle duality theory of light.
 SoupGateWin32 v1.05
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From
carl eto@21:1/5 to
All on Mon Nov 27 09:47:42 2023
TABLE OF CONTENT
§ 1. Introduction
§ 2. Roemer
§ 3. Huygens
§ 4. Fresnel
§ 5. Oested
§ 6. Maxwell
§ 7. Michelson
§ 8. Kirchhoff
§ 11. Lenard
§ 12. Planck
§ 13. Einstein's Energy Quanta
§ 14. Einstein Inertial Mass
§ 15. Einstein Electrodynamics (SR)
§ 16. Minkowski
§ 17. Einstein's Electromagnetic Ether
§ 18. Relativity: Special and General Theory
§ 19. Einstein Ether
§ 20. Rutherford
§ 21. Bohr Atom
§ 22. Quantum Mechanics
§ 23. Heisenberg
§ 24. Quantum Electrodynamics
§ 25. String Theory
§ 19. Nuclear Energy
§ 26. Particle Physics
§ 27. Gravitation Physics
§ 28. Modern Astronomy
§ 29. NASA
§ 30. Climate Change
§ 30. Maxwell Equations
§ 31. Electromagnetic Wave Equations of Light
§ 32. Transmission and Reflection Equations
§ 33. Polarization
§ 34. Aperture Diffraction
§ 35. Optic Particle Theory
§ 36. Conclusion
§ 37. Reference
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Upon the Analyze the Wave Theory of Light and its Affect on Modern Physics and Astronomy
November 24, 2023
This paper will analyze the wave theory of light and its affect on modern physics and astronomy. Fresnel depicts diffraction using interfering spherical waves produced by the motion of an ether, composed of matter, yet the ether does not exist (vacuum).
Maxwell introduces an electromagnetic theory of light based on Faraday's law since induction forms in vacuum but induction does not involve light and Maxwell's light wave is formed by the motion of an ether that does not exist. Hertz's radio waves are
used to justify Maxwell's theory but radio waves are also not luminous and an expanding electromagnetic field cannot form Newton's particle structure of light. Planck derives an energy element (hγ) that is depicted with the units of the kinetic energy (
g m2 / s2) since h = 6.55 . 1027 erg . s and erg = g m2 / s2 yet a photon is massless, and an expanding electromagnetic field cannot sustain a particle structure. Einstein's (1905) special relativity is used to justify Maxwell's theory but altering the
dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the fact that Faraday's induction effect is not emitting light nor is induction a particle effect. In particle physics, the Fermilab subatomic particles propagate through the steel enclosure of the bubble
chamber but subatomic particles that have a mass cannot propagate through steel. In astronomy, Kepler describes the Earth propagating around the Sun on an elliptical path yet seasons are not formed at the equator.
The ancient civilizations played an important role in the development of science, mathematics, and astronomy. The Egyptians (5000 BC  300 AD) derived the area equation of a triangle (Rhind 10057), and, in optics, the Egyptians believed the eye sent out
feelers that emanated from the eye and felt the object being viewed. The Babylonians (1894 BC  1595 BC) (Iraq) discovered the cosine of a right triangle using 15 different right triangles that dimensions and calculations were chiseled into a stone
tablet (Plimpton 322). Greeks scholar Archimedes (b. 287 BC) discovered the area equation of a circle using pi. In optic, the Greeks (1,200 BC  323 BC) believed the outer surface (simulacra) of the object peels off the object and propagates to the eye
then enters the eye forming the image of the object. Most, if not all, of the important Greek writings (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Parmenides, Aspasia, etc.) were saved by Middle Eastern scholars who hid the Greek writings in desert caves which were
inaccessible to the Roman army (27 BC  330 AD) that attempted to burn all of the important Greek writings.
The Middle Eastern scientific and mathematical advancements are the origin of European science. In the ninth century AD, Iraqi intellectuals studying the Greek writings resulted in the advent of the light ray theory. In Abū Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥā
q aṣṢabbāḥ alKindī (Kindi) (b. 801 AD) paper "De radiis stellarum", the theory of vision is described using light rays that interact with the eye and form vision. Iranian scholar and mathematician Muhammad Ibn Musa Al Khwarizmi (Quṭrubbaliyy)
(b. 780 AD) developed algebra in his book, "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing" (813 AD). In Ḥasan Ibn alHaytham (Alhazen) (b. 965) paper "Opticae Thesaurus", Alhazen enhances the light ray theory using the anatomy of the
eye where light rays interacting with the eye's lens and retina formed vision. In Syrian astronomer Abu alḤasan Alāʾ al‐Dīn bin Alī bin Ibrāhīm bin Muhammad bin alMatam alAnsari (Shatir) (b. 1304) paper, "The Final Quest Concerning the
Rectification of Principles" Shatir observed the celestial universe and described the Earth orbiting the Sun (fig 1). Galileo (b. 1564) used the design of the Middle Eastern handheld two lens optical magnifier in the construction of the astronomic
telescope. Kepler (b.1571) describes the Earth propagating around the Sun on an elliptical path yet seasons are not formed at the equator.
Maxwell's (1864) electromagnetic theory of light based on Faraday's induction effect was introduced since induction forms in vacuum but Faraday's induction effect is not luminous, and Maxwell's theory is based on light waves formed by the motion of an
ether, composed of matter, yet the ether does not physically exist. The velocity of light is used to justify Maxwell's theory but the velocity of light does not change the fact that Faraday's induction effect is not radiating light. Poynting (1884)
supports Maxwell's theory by deriving an electromagnetic energy equation of light but Poynting's current wire is not emitting light. Hertz's (1887) radio waves are used to validate Maxwell's theory but radio waves are also not luminous. Lorentz (1899) is
supporting Maxwell's theory by transforming Maxwell's equations but altering the dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the fact that Faraday's induction effect is not producing light nor does Maxwell's ether exist. Lenard (1900  1902) proves
light is composed of particles which negates the continuity of Maxwell's electromagnetic field. Planck (1901) supports Maxwell's theory that Lenard invalidates where Planck derives an energy element that represents the energy of a waveparticle
electromagnetic photon but photons do not solve the continuity problem imposed by Lenard, and, an expanding electromagnetic field cannot sustain the particle structure of a photon. Plus, the ether that motion forms Planck's electromagnetic standing wave
that is used to quantize Maxwell's electromagnetic wave into a photon does not physically exist (vacuum). Also, when describing diffraction, waveparticle electromagnetic photons would be arbitrarily destroyed to form the dark fringes of the diffraction
pattern which violates energy conservation and invalidates the waveparticle duality theory of light.
Einstein's (1905) special relativity is used to justify Maxwell's theory. Einstein transforms Maxwell's equations but altering the dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the fact that induction is not luminous nor does Maxwell's ether
physically exist (vacuum). Plus, Maxwell's equations are derived using Faraday's induction effect that is not a particle effect since an expanding electromagnetic field cannot depict a particle structure nor can photons represent the continuous structure
of Maxwell's electromagnetic plane wave. Einstein states the ether is superfluous (unnecessary) but Einstein does not explain how altering the coordinate system of Maxwell's equations renders the ether superfluous yet Maxwell's theory is based on light
waves formed by the motion of an ether, composed of matter. Minkowski's (1908) electromagnetic aether is an attempt to rescue the wave theory of light but a massless electromagnetic ether conflicts with Huygens' ether that is composed of matter. In 1910,
Einstein supported Minkowski's electromagnetic aether by stating the ether is associated with electric and magnetic fields yet a massless electromagnetic ether conflicts with Huygens' ether that is composed of matter. Plus, Einstein (1905 & 1917)
describes an inertial mass (m = E/c2) that is used to structurally unify Maxwell's electromagnetic field with matter but Einstein's inertial mass is massless since E represents the energy of a photon. Compton's photon momentum (p = h/λ) is used to
support Minkowski's electromagnetic aether but the units of Compton's photon momentum (g m/s) contains the unit of the mass (g) since h = 6.55 . 1027 erg . s and erg = g m2 / s2 yet a photon is massless which nullifies Compton's photon momentum that is
used to justify Minkowski's electromagnetic aether.
________________________________________________________________________________________
§ 2. Roemer
Roemer describes a method to measure the velocity of light in "A Presentation Concerning the Propagation of Light Determined" (1676) where Roemer uses the eclipse of Io (fig 3).
"Hence, if light would travel the diameter of the Earth in one second, it would travel each interval FG and KL in 3 1/2 minutes. This should lead to a deviation of about half an hour between two revolutions of this satellite observed in FG and KL
respectively. On the other hand, nothing of such a substantial difference has been found." (Roemer, p. 276).
Roemer's measurement of the velocity of light is reliant on the Earth’s yearly velocity that is derived using the Earth’s orbital circumference (9.4 x 108 km) and the Earth's yearly orbital time of 364 days (3.154 x 107s),
(9.4 x 108 km) / (3.154 x 107s) = 30 km/s……………………………………………......……………..1
The distance of each interval FG and KL is equal to,
d = (152,853.5047 s/r) (40 r) (30,000 m/s) = 1.831 x 1011 m.........................................................2
The distance d (equ 2) corresponds with 40 rotations of Io around Jupiter where Io has a period of 42.5 h (152,853.5047 s) and the Earth is said to be orbiting the Sun at a velocity of 30 km/s. On the evening of November 9, Roemer observed a 10minute (
600 s) time delay of Io's eclipse that Roemer attributed to light propagating the distance d which is used to calculate the velocity of light,
c = (1.831 x 1011 m) / (600 s) = 3.05 x 108 m/s.................................................................................3
The measurement of the velocity of light (equ 3) is reliant on viewing the eclipse of Io at a specific time but the time at which Io is being viewed requires the initial time at dusk and the time when Io is viewed at night but using a hourglass, the time
measurement uncertainty would be greater than the 10minute time delay that is used to measure the velocity of light.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 SoupGateWin32 v1.05
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From
carl eto@21:1/5 to
All on Mon Nov 27 10:38:12 2023
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
§ 3. Huygens
In "Treatise on Light" (1690), Huygens calculates the velocity of light using the Earth's orbital diameter KL and a 20minute time delay of the eclipse of Io (fig 4).
"If one considers the vast size of the diameter KL, which according to me is some 24 thousand diameters of the Earth, one will acknowledge the extreme velocity of Light. For, supposing that KL is no more than 22 thousand of these diameters, it appears
that being traversed in 22 minutes this makes the speed a thousand diameters in one minute" (Huygens, p. 1011).
The distance KL and a 22minute time delay of the eclipse of Io are used to calculate the velocity of light,
c = (2.99 x 10^11 m) / (1320 s) = 2.26 x 10^8 m/s.......................................................................................4
Huygens' 22minute time delay of Io's eclipse is produced by Sunlight reflected by Io propagating the distance of KL but when the Earth is at the orbital position L (fig 4), the Sun would be between Io and the Earth which would prevent the viewing of Io
which physically nullifies Huygens' measurement of the velocity of light.
_______________________________________________________________________
 SoupGateWin32 v1.05
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From
carl eto@21:1/5 to
All on Mon Nov 27 10:40:27 2023
TABLE OF CONTENT
§ 1. Introduction
§ 2. Roemer
§ 3. Huygens
§ 4. Fresnel
§ 5. Oested
§ 6. Maxwell
§ 7. Michelson
§ 8. Kirchhoff
§ 11. Lenard
§ 12. Planck
§ 13. Einstein's Energy Quanta
§ 14. Einstein Inertial Mass
§ 15. Einstein Electrodynamics (SR)
§ 16. Minkowski
§ 17. Einstein's Electromagnetic Ether
§ 18. Relativity: Special and General Theory
§ 19. Einstein Ether
§ 20. Rutherford
§ 21. Bohr Atom
§ 22. Quantum Mechanics
§ 23. Heisenberg
§ 24. Quantum Electrodynamics
§ 25. String Theory
§ 19. Nuclear Energy
§ 26. Particle Physics
§ 27. Gravitation Physics
§ 28. Modern Astronomy
§ 29. NASA
§ 30. Climate Change
§ 30. Maxwell Equations
§ 31. Electromagnetic Wave Equations of Light
§ 32. Transmission and Reflection Equations
§ 33. Polarization
§ 34. Aperture Diffraction
§ 35. Optic Particle Theory
§ 36. Conclusion
§ 37. Reference
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Upon the Analyze the Wave Theory of Light and its Affect on Modern Physics and Astronomy
November 24, 2023
This paper will analyze the wave theory of light and its affect on modern physics and astronomy. Fresnel depicts diffraction using interfering spherical waves produced by the motion of an ether, composed of matter, yet the ether does not exist (vacuum).
Maxwell introduces an electromagnetic theory of light based on Faraday's law since induction forms in vacuum but induction does not involve light and Maxwell's light wave is formed by the motion of an ether that does not exist. Hertz's radio waves are
used to justify Maxwell's theory but radio waves are also not luminous and an expanding electromagnetic field cannot form Newton's particle structure of light. Planck derives an energy element (hγ) that is depicted with the units of the kinetic energy (
g m2 / s2) since h = 6.55 . 1027 erg . s and erg = g m2 / s2 yet a photon is massless, and an expanding electromagnetic field cannot sustain a particle structure. Einstein's (1905) special relativity is used to justify Maxwell's theory but altering the
dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the fact that Faraday's induction effect is not emitting light nor is induction a particle effect. In particle physics, the Fermilab subatomic particles propagate through the steel enclosure of the bubble
chamber but subatomic particles that have a mass cannot propagate through steel. In astronomy, Kepler describes the Earth propagating around the Sun on an elliptical path yet seasons are not formed at the equator.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
The ancient civilizations played an important role in the development of science, mathematics, and astronomy. The Egyptians (5000 BC  300 AD) derived the area equation of a triangle (Rhind 10057), and, in optics, the Egyptians believed the eye sent out
feelers that emanated from the eye and felt the object being viewed. The Babylonians (1894 BC  1595 BC) (Iraq) discovered the cosine of a right triangle using 15 different right triangles that dimensions and calculations were chiseled into a stone
tablet (Plimpton 322). Greeks scholar Archimedes (b. 287 BC) discovered the area equation of a circle using pi. In optic, the Greeks (1,200 BC  323 BC) believed the outer surface (simulacra) of the object peels off the object and propagates to the eye
then enters the eye forming the image of the object. Most, if not all, of the important Greek writings (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Parmenides, Aspasia, etc.) were saved by Middle Eastern scholars who hid the Greek writings in desert caves which were
inaccessible to the Roman army (27 BC  330 AD) that attempted to burn all of the important Greek writings.
The Middle Eastern scientific and mathematical advancements are the origin of European science. In the ninth century AD, Iraqi intellectuals studying the Greek writings resulted in the advent of the light ray theory. In Abū Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥā
q aṣṢabbāḥ alKindī (Kindi) (b. 801 AD) paper "De radiis stellarum", the theory of vision is described using light rays that interact with the eye and form vision. Iranian scholar and mathematician Muhammad Ibn Musa Al Khwarizmi (Quṭrubbaliyy)
(b. 780 AD) developed algebra in his book, "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing" (813 AD). In Ḥasan Ibn alHaytham (Alhazen) (b. 965) paper "Opticae Thesaurus", Alhazen enhances the light ray theory using the anatomy of the
eye where light rays interacting with the eye's lens and retina formed vision. In Syrian astronomer Abu alḤasan Alāʾ al‐Dīn bin Alī bin Ibrāhīm bin Muhammad bin alMatam alAnsari (Shatir) (b. 1304) paper, "The Final Quest Concerning the
Rectification of Principles" Shatir observed the celestial universe and described the Earth orbiting the Sun (fig 1). Galileo (b. 1564) used the design of the Middle Eastern handheld two lens optical magnifier in the construction of the astronomic
telescope. Kepler (b.1571) describes the Earth propagating around the Sun on an elliptical path yet seasons are not formed at the equator.
Maxwell's (1864) electromagnetic theory of light based on Faraday's induction effect was introduced since induction forms in vacuum but Faraday's induction effect is not luminous, and Maxwell's theory is based on light waves formed by the motion of an
ether, composed of matter, yet the ether does not physically exist. The velocity of light is used to justify Maxwell's theory but the velocity of light does not change the fact that Faraday's induction effect is not radiating light. Poynting (1884)
supports Maxwell's theory by deriving an electromagnetic energy equation of light but Poynting's current wire is not emitting light. Hertz's (1887) radio waves are used to validate Maxwell's theory but radio waves are also not luminous. Lorentz (1899) is
supporting Maxwell's theory by transforming Maxwell's equations but altering the dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the fact that Faraday's induction effect is not producing light nor does Maxwell's ether exist. Lenard (1900  1902) proves
light is composed of particles which negates the continuity of Maxwell's electromagnetic field. Planck (1901) supports Maxwell's theory that Lenard invalidates where Planck derives an energy element that represents the energy of a waveparticle
electromagnetic photon but photons do not solve the continuity problem imposed by Lenard, and, an expanding electromagnetic field cannot sustain the particle structure of a photon. Plus, the ether that motion forms Planck's electromagnetic standing wave
that is used to quantize Maxwell's electromagnetic wave into a photon does not physically exist (vacuum). Also, when describing diffraction, waveparticle electromagnetic photons would be arbitrarily destroyed to form the dark fringes of the diffraction
pattern which violates energy conservation and invalidates the waveparticle duality theory of light.
Einstein's (1905) special relativity is used to justify Maxwell's theory. Einstein transforms Maxwell's equations but altering the dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the fact that induction is not luminous nor does Maxwell's ether
physically exist (vacuum). Plus, Maxwell's equations are derived using Faraday's induction effect that is not a particle effect since an expanding electromagnetic field cannot depict a particle structure nor can photons represent the continuous structure
of Maxwell's electromagnetic plane wave. Einstein states the ether is superfluous (unnecessary) but Einstein does not explain how altering the coordinate system of Maxwell's equations renders the ether superfluous yet Maxwell's theory is based on light
waves formed by the motion of an ether, composed of matter. Minkowski's (1908) electromagnetic aether is an attempt to rescue the wave theory of light but a massless electromagnetic ether conflicts with Huygens' ether that is composed of matter. In 1910,
Einstein supported Minkowski's electromagnetic aether by stating the ether is associated with electric and magnetic fields yet a massless electromagnetic ether conflicts with Huygens' ether that is composed of matter. Plus, Einstein (1905 & 1917)
describes an inertial mass (m = E/c2) that is used to structurally unify Maxwell's electromagnetic field with matter but Einstein's inertial mass is massless since E represents the energy of a photon. Compton's photon momentum (p = h/λ) is used to
support Minkowski's electromagnetic aether but the units of Compton's photon momentum (g m/s) contains the unit of the mass (g) since h = 6.55 . 1027 erg . s and erg = g m2 / s2 yet a photon is massless which nullifies Compton's photon momentum that is
used to justify Minkowski's electromagnetic aether.
________________________________________________________________________________________
§ 2. Roemer
Roemer describes a method to measure the velocity of light in "A Presentation Concerning the Propagation of Light Determined" (1676) where Roemer uses the eclipse of Io (fig 3).
"Hence, if light would travel the diameter of the Earth in one second, it would travel each interval FG and KL in 3 1/2 minutes. This should lead to a deviation of about half an hour between two revolutions of this satellite observed in FG and KL
respectively. On the other hand, nothing of such a substantial difference has been found." (Roemer, p. 276).
Roemer's measurement of the velocity of light is reliant on the Earth’s yearly velocity that is derived using the Earth’s orbital circumference (9.4 x 108 km) and the Earth's yearly orbital time of 364 days (3.154 x 107s),
(9.4 x 108 km) / (3.154 x 107s) = 30 km/s……………………………………………......……………..1
The distance of each interval FG and KL is equal to,
d = (152,853.5047 s/r) (40 r) (30,000 m/s) = 1.831 x 1011 m.........................................................2
The distance d (equ 2) corresponds with 40 rotations of Io around Jupiter where Io has a period of 42.5 h (152,853.5047 s) and the Earth is said to be orbiting the Sun at a velocity of 30 km/s. On the evening of November 9, Roemer observed a 10minute (
600 s) time delay of Io's eclipse that Roemer attributed to light propagating the distance d which is used to calculate the velocity of light,
c = (1.831 x 1011 m) / (600 s) = 3.05 x 108 m/s.................................................................................3
The measurement of the velocity of light (equ 3) is reliant on viewing the eclipse of Io at a specific time but the time at which Io is being viewed requires the initial time at dusk and the time when Io is viewed at night but using a hourglass, the time
measurement uncertainty would be greater than the 10minute time delay that is used to measure the velocity of light.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
§ 3. Huygens
In "Treatise on Light" (1690), Huygens calculates the velocity of light using the Earth's orbital diameter KL and a 20minute time delay of the eclipse of Io (fig 4).
"If one considers the vast size of the diameter KL, which according to me is some 24 thousand diameters of the Earth, one will acknowledge the extreme velocity of Light. For, supposing that KL is no more than 22 thousand of these diameters, it appears
that being traversed in 22 minutes this makes the speed a thousand diameters in one minute" (Huygens, p. 1011).
The distance KL and a 22minute time delay of the eclipse of Io are used to calculate the velocity of light,
c = (2.99 x 10^11 m) / (1320 s) = 2.26 x 10^8 m/s.......................................................................................4
Huygens' 22minute time delay of Io's eclipse is produced by Sunlight reflected by Io propagating the distance of KL but when the Earth is at the orbital position L (fig 4), the Sun would be between Io and the Earth which would prevent the viewing of Io
which physically nullifies Huygens' measurement of the velocity of light.
_______________________________________________________________________
 SoupGateWin32 v1.05
* Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)