• #### Astronomy

From carl eto@21:1/5 to All on Sat May 6 11:12:17 2023
Astronomy

Syrian astronomer Shatir (b. 1304) observed the celestial universe and described the Earth revolving around the Sun on a circular orbit (fig 1). Copernicus depicted Mercury and Venus orbiting the Sun between the Sun and the Earth (fig 2) but if Mercury
and Venus are orbiting the Sun between the Sun and the Earth, Mercury and Venus could not be viewed a night; consequently, Venus and Mercury have orbital diameters larger than the Earth's orbital diameter.
Kepler describes the Earth orbiting the Sun on an elliptical path but the seasons are formed by the tilt of the Earth where the tilt allows a hemisphere of the Earth to be closer (summer) or farther (winter) from the Sun forming a 300 mile displacement
yet Kepler describes the Earth orbiting the Sun on an elliptical orbit where the displacement between the Earth's orbital aphelion and perihelion is 3.1 million miles yet seasons are not formed at the equator which is experimental proof the Earth's orbit
is circular.
Parallax is used to measure the distance to a star which requires a parallax reference distance. Astronomers use the Earth's orbital diameter as the parallax reference distance but the distance to a 4.22 light year star (4 x 1016 m) is more than 105
times greater than the Earth's orbital diameter (2.99 x 1011 m) which is too short of a parallax reference distance to produce a change in the angular position θ that can be measured using the Hubble to measure the distance to the closest star. The
telescopic resolution θ required to determine the distance to a 4.22 ly star is calculated,

A/B = cos θ......................................................................................................1

when A/B → 0, equation 1 becomes,

A/B = θ.............................................................................................................2

Using A as the Earth's orbital diameter, B is the distance to a 4.22 ly star, and θ is the change in the angular displacement of the star, in equation 2, the telescopic resolution (power) required to determine the distance to a 4.22 ly (4 x 1016 meters)
star is calculated,

θ = A/B = (2.99 x 1011 m) / (4 x 1016 meters) = 7.475 x 10-6 degrees or 0.027 arcsec..........3
To measure the distance to a 4.22 ly star using the Earth's orbital diameter as the parallax reference distance requires a telescopic resolution of 0.027 arcsec (equ 3) which is 3.7 times more power than the Hubble (.1 arcsec). Using equation 2, the
maximum parallax distance to a star calculated using the Hubble is calculated,

B = A/θ = (2.99 x 1011 m) x (3600o) / arcec) x (.1 arcsec)-1 = 1.0764 x 1015 m = 0.114 ly..........4

The Hubble (.1 arcsec) has a maximum parallax range of .114 ly (equ 4) using the Earth's orbital diameter as the parallax reference distance but the distance to the closest star is 4.22 ly which is four times greater then the range of the Hubble. In
addition, to determine the distance to a star using parallax requires a straight path parallax reference distance but the curvature of the Earth's orbit changes the directional view of the observer on the Earth by 180o after 182 days (six months);
consequently, parallax cannot be used in astronomy.
The Hubble is said to have been used to photograph the Eagle Nebula that is 7,000 ly from the Earth and composed of more than 1,000 stars but only the stars of constellations exist since the Hubble cannot resolve any of the stars that composed of Eagle
Nebula. The Sun is said to be propagating at the velocity of 220 km/s to increase the parallax reference distance but a celestial map of the constellations represents stars that are stationary which includes the Sun. If the stars were in motion, a 10-
year-old planisphere would not function and the constellations would not annually align. Plus, astronomers cannot state the exact direction the Sun is propagating.
The Milky Way galaxy includes the Sun which would require the photographer to be many millions of light years away from the Earth which proves the photographic images of the Milky Way were fabricated. In addition, the density of the stars depicted on a
planisphere is constant yet the image of the Milky Way represents a higher density of stars along the branches of the Milky Way which conflicts with the constant density of stars depicted on celestial maps of the constellations. The constant density of
stars proves the Milky Way galaxy does not exist. Only the stars that compose of constellation that can be viewed with the naked eye exist. All other celestial phenomena are fiction.
Black holes depict the uncertainty (limit) of a telescope's range. Example, using an analogy, a microscope has a measurement limit since a microscope cannot view electrons orbiting an atom. The areas that are not within the range (uncertainty) of a
microscope are black holes. A telescope also has a limit to the stellar universe that can be viewed; consequently, black holes represent the measurement uncertainty of a telescope. Also, radio astronomy is based on continuous and expanding
electromagnetic radio waves that propagate and expand from the distance stars to the Earth. The stars are said to emit expanding radio waves but radio astronomers cannot determine which of the stars’ radio waves are forming the radio signal since a
stars' expanding electromagnetic radio emissions would combined at the Earth. The Big Bang expansion theory is based on the stars of the stellar universe that are in motion but the shapes of the constellations have not changed since the inception of photography (140 years). The length of the handle of the Big Dipper has not
increased or decreased nor has the length of the legs of Cirrus changed, in the last 140 years. The red shift is used to justify the Big Bang expansion theory but every star at different times form both red and blue shifts since the stars are stationary.
When an observer on the surface of the Earth propagates towards a star, the blue shift is produced and when the observer propagates away from the star, the red shift is observed. The stellar red and blue shifts are formed by the Earth's daily and yearly
velocities affect on the observer viewing stationary stars which contradicts the Big Bang theory that stars are in motion (expanding).

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