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    From carl eto@21:1/5 to All on Fri May 5 12:45:35 2023
    Special Relativity
    Ben T. Ito
    May 5, 2023



    This paper will analyze Einstein’s special relativity. Fresnel depicts diffraction using interfering spherical waves produced by the motion of an ether, composed of matter, yet the ether does not exist (vacuum). Maxwell introduces an electromagnetic
    theory of light based on Faraday's law since induction forms in vacuum but induction is not luminous. Einstein’s special relativity is used to justify Maxwell's theory.





    § 1. Introduction





    Huygens (1690) describes the propagation of light using spherical waves formed by the motion of an ether, composed of matter, (Huygens, p. 5 – 11) yet light propagates in a vacuum that is void of an ether. Fresnel (1819) established the wave theory of
    light by deriving a diffraction intensity equation using Huygens’ spherical waves (Fresnel, 43) but diffraction forms in vacuum that is void of an ether. Michelson (1881) tested for the existence of the ether but the result was negative; consequently,
    Lorentz (1899) reverses the negative result of Michelson's experiment to justify the ether (Lorentz, § 9).

    Lenard (1902) proves light is composed of particles (Lenard, Intro) which negates the continuity of Maxwell's electromagnetic field. Planck (1901) supports Maxwell's theory (Planck, Intro) that Lenard invalidates by deriving an energy element that
    represents the energy of a photon but an expanding electromagnetic field cannot form a particle structure. Plus, Planck’s ether (diathermic media) (Planck, § 7) that motion forms Planck's standing wave (resonator) does not exist (vacuum).

    Einstein's (1905) special relativity is used to justify Maxwell's theory by transforming Maxwell's equations (Einstein1, § 6) but altering the dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the fact that induction is not luminous. In addition,
    Einstein states the ether is superfluous (Einstein2, Intro) but Einstein does not explain how altering the coordinate system of Maxwell's equations renders the ether superfluous since the ether is the foundation of the wave theory of light.

    Minkowski (1908) describes an electromagnetic aether using Maxwell's equations (Minkowski, § 2) but a massless electromagnetic ether conflicts with Huygens' ether that is composed of matter. In 1910, Einstein supported Minkowski's electromagnetic aether
    (Einstein2, § 1). Einstein (1917) uses the inertial mass (m = E/c2) (Einstein3, § 15) that is used to structurally unify Maxwell's electromagnetic field with matter to confirm the electromagnetic ether but Einstein's inertial mass is massless since E
    represents the energy of a photon. Compton's photon momentum (p = h/λ) is used to support Einstein’s inertial mass but the units of Compton's photon momentum (g m/s) contain the unit of the mass (g) yet a photon is massless.





    § 2. Einstein’s Special Relativity





    In Einstein's special relativity paper, "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" (1905), Einstein is supporting Maxwell's theory.



    “Let the Maxwell-Hertz equations for empty space be valid for the system at rest K, so that we have






    dX/dt = dN/dy - dM/dz................... dL/dt = dY/dz - dZ/dy.................................1a,b






    dY/dt = dL/dz - dN/dx.....................dM/dt = dZ/dx - dX/dz...............................2a,b






    dZ/dt = dM/dx - dL/dy.....................dN/dt = dX/dy - dY/dx...............................3a,b









    where (X,Y,Z) denotes the vector of the electric force, and (L,M,N) that of the magnetic force." (Einstein1, § 6).






    β = 1/(1 - v2/c2)1/2........................................................4








    Applying equation 4 to the coordinate system of Maxwell's equations,







    "X' = X.......................... L' = L......................................5a,b





    Y' = β[Y - (v/c)N]......... M'= β[M + (v/c)Z].....................6a,b




    Z' = β[Z + (v/c)M],........N' = β[N - (v/c)Y]"....................7a,b





    (Einstein1, § 6). Einstein is supporting Maxwell's theory by altering the dimensions of Maxwell's equations but varying the dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the fact that Maxwell's equations are derived using Faraday's induction effect
    that is not luminous.

    § 3. Conclusion





    Fresnel derives a diffraction intensity equation using interfering spherical waves formed by the motion of an ether that established the wave theory of light yet diffraction forms in vacuum that is void of an ether. Maxwell's theory was introduced since
    induction forms in vacuum but Faraday's induction effect is not luminous. Einstein's (1905) special relativity is used to justify Maxwell's theory by transforming Maxwell's equations but altering the dimensions of Maxwell's equations does not change the
    fact that induction is not luminous nor does Maxwell's ether exist (vacuum). Also, using relativity, Einstein's photon energy equation E = mγc2 where γ = 1/(1 - v2/c2)1/2 becomes undefined for a photon (v = c) that has a mass (10-54 kg).





    Einstein1, Albert. On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. Annalen der Physik. 17:891-921. 1905.

    Einstein2, Albert. The Principle of Relativity and its Consequences in Modern Physics. 1910.

    Einstein3, Albert. Relativity: Special and General Theory. Brauschweig. 1917.

    Fresnel, Augustin. Memorie su la Diffraction de la Lumiere. French Academy of Science. 1819.

    Hertz, Heinrich. Annalen der Physik. 1887.

    Huygens, Christiann. Treatise on Light. Translated by Silvanus P. Thompson. French Academy of Science. 1690.

    Lorentz, Hendrik. Simplified Theory of Electrical and Optical Phenomena in Moving Systems. Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences 1:427-442. 1899.

    Maxwell, Clerk. A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. 1982.

    Michelson, Albert. The Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether. American Journal of Science. 22:120-129, 1881.

    Minkowski, Hermann. The Fundamental Equations for Electromagnetic Processes in Moving Bodies. Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse. pp. 53-111. 1908.

    Planck, Max. On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum. Annalen der Physik. 4:553. 1901.

    Poynting, John. The Transfer of Energy in the Electromagnetic Field. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 175:343-361. 1884.

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