Abstract: The Lorentz force law is fundamental for electromagnetism. However, it is known long ago that the Lorentz forces between two current elements do not respect the Newton's third law. This seemingly harmless flaw had never been corrected. Inphysical sciences a discrepancy often hides in it new understanding or unexpected breakthrough. For solving this problem, we give a purely theoretical derivation of magnetic force which respects the Newton's third law in the case of current elements and
1. IntroductionNevertheless, breaking the Newton's third law does not fit scientific standard, even for the Lorentz forces law which is fundamental.
The Figure 1 shows a case where dFa is perpendicular to dFb , so, dFa + dFb 0. This problem was known for longtime. People justify that the Lorentz forces that two closed loop currents act on each other do satisfy the Newton's third law.
We will try to solve this problem with a new magnetic force law that we have derived with pure theory. The new law is derived from the Coulomb’s law which defines the Coulomb’s force for fixed charges. For moving electrons, the Coulomb’s forceundergoes relativistic effects and varies with velocity.
2. Consequencesrelativistic dynamic effect and changing distance effect. So, we have theoretically proven this relation and in consequence, the relation mu0eps0c2 = 1 is now a theoretical law.
• The relationmu0 eps0 c2 = 1
Historically, the values of mu0, eps0 and the speed of light c were measured experimentally. It was James Clerk Maxwell who noticed that mu0eps0c2 = 1 . So, it was an empirical law. In our derivation this relation emerged naturally from both
• Biot–Savart lawthus, lacks this term. So, it cannot satisfy Newton's third law. Thanks to the fully theoretical derivation, the magnetic force law (49) contains the missing last term and consequently, satisfies Newton's third law.
The equation (58) is identical to the Biot–Savart law (59) but is derived with pure theory. So, the Biot–Savart law becomes a theoretical law too.
• Lorentz force law
(61) is the Lorentz force that one dIb exerts on dIa . So, we have derived the Lorentz force law from the Coulomb’s law.
• Magnetic force vs. Newton's third law
The sum of the magnetic force (49) and its back force is zero. So, the magnetic force law (49) satisfies the Newton's third law for current elements . Being an experimental law, the Lorentz force law does not describe a force that does not exist and
3. Experimental evidencesdriving force must be parallel to the wire, that is, the driving force is parallel to the current. This force cannot be Lorentz force which is perpendicular to the current. A detailed technical explanation is in the paper «Showing tangential magnetic
• My experiments
The first experiment is «Continuous rotation of a circular coil experiment» . The video of this experiment is: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9162Qw-wNow . In this video we see a round coil that rotates in its plane. Because the coil is round the
I have also made a « Circular motor driven by tangential magnetic force » . The video of this experiment is: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JkGUaJqa6nU&list=UUuJXMstqPh8VY4UYqDgwcvQ . The technical details of this experiment is: « Detail of mycircular motor using tangential force and the equivalence with homopolar motor » .
• Experiment of wire fragmentationsignificant. So, it could be used as the driving force for new devices.
In 1961, Jan Nasilowski in Poland has carried out an experiment which consisted of passing a huge current in a thin wire. The wire exploded into small pieces. The interesting thing is that the wires were not melted but teared apart by mechanical force.
4. Conclusion
Because the new law gives the same prediction as the Lorentz force law for closed loop currents, it works for electromagnetism as the Lorentz force law. However, the component of magnetic force parallel to the current is new and shown to be rather
Since the Biot–Savart law, the Lorentz force law and the relation mu0 eps0 c2 = 1are derived with pure theory, the deep mechanism that transforms electric force into magnetic force is revealed to be the two relativistic effects, electromagnetism ismuch better understood.
For more detail of this study please read the complete paper here:HI!
« From Coulomb’s force to magnetic force and experiments that show magnetic force parallel to current»
https://www.academia.edu/106863205/From_Coulombs_force_to_magnetic_force_and_experiments_that_show_magnetic_force_parallel_to_current
Kuan Peng
On Tuesday, September 26, 2023 at 4:19:26 PM UTC-4, PengKuan Em wrote:physical sciences a discrepancy often hides in it new understanding or unexpected breakthrough. For solving this problem, we give a purely theoretical derivation of magnetic force which respects the Newton's third law in the case of current elements and
Abstract: The Lorentz force law is fundamental for electromagnetism. However, it is known long ago that the Lorentz forces between two current elements do not respect the Newton's third law. This seemingly harmless flaw had never been corrected. In
Nevertheless, breaking the Newton's third law does not fit scientific standard, even for the Lorentz forces law which is fundamental.1. Introduction
The Figure 1 shows a case where dFa is perpendicular to dFb , so, dFa + dFb 0. This problem was known for longtime. People justify that the Lorentz forces that two closed loop currents act on each other do satisfy the Newton's third law.
undergoes relativistic effects and varies with velocity.We will try to solve this problem with a new magnetic force law that we have derived with pure theory. The new law is derived from the Coulomb’s law which defines the Coulomb’s force for fixed charges. For moving electrons, the Coulomb’s force
relativistic dynamic effect and changing distance effect. So, we have theoretically proven this relation and in consequence, the relation mu0eps0c2 = 1 is now a theoretical law.2. Consequences
• The relationmu0 eps0 c2 = 1
Historically, the values of mu0, eps0 and the speed of light c were measured experimentally. It was James Clerk Maxwell who noticed that mu0eps0c2 = 1 . So, it was an empirical law. In our derivation this relation emerged naturally from both
thus, lacks this term. So, it cannot satisfy Newton's third law. Thanks to the fully theoretical derivation, the magnetic force law (49) contains the missing last term and consequently, satisfies Newton's third law.• Biot–Savart law
The equation (58) is identical to the Biot–Savart law (59) but is derived with pure theory. So, the Biot–Savart law becomes a theoretical law too.
• Lorentz force law
(61) is the Lorentz force that one dIb exerts on dIa . So, we have derived the Lorentz force law from the Coulomb’s law.
• Magnetic force vs. Newton's third law
The sum of the magnetic force (49) and its back force is zero. So, the magnetic force law (49) satisfies the Newton's third law for current elements . Being an experimental law, the Lorentz force law does not describe a force that does not exist and
driving force must be parallel to the wire, that is, the driving force is parallel to the current. This force cannot be Lorentz force which is perpendicular to the current. A detailed technical explanation is in the paper «Showing tangential magnetic3. Experimental evidences
• My experiments
The first experiment is «Continuous rotation of a circular coil experiment» . The video of this experiment is: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9162Qw-wNow . In this video we see a round coil that rotates in its plane. Because the coil is round the
circular motor using tangential force and the equivalence with homopolar motor » .I have also made a « Circular motor driven by tangential magnetic force » . The video of this experiment is: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JkGUaJqa6nU&list=UUuJXMstqPh8VY4UYqDgwcvQ . The technical details of this experiment is: « Detail of my
force.• Experiment of wire fragmentation
In 1961, Jan Nasilowski in Poland has carried out an experiment which consisted of passing a huge current in a thin wire. The wire exploded into small pieces. The interesting thing is that the wires were not melted but teared apart by mechanical
significant. So, it could be used as the driving force for new devices.4. Conclusion
Because the new law gives the same prediction as the Lorentz force law for closed loop currents, it works for electromagnetism as the Lorentz force law. However, the component of magnetic force parallel to the current is new and shown to be rather
much better understood.Since the Biot–Savart law, the Lorentz force law and the relation mu0 eps0 c2 = 1are derived with pure theory, the deep mechanism that transforms electric force into magnetic force is revealed to be the two relativistic effects, electromagnetism is
Of course I do. Let's discuss what we can do.For more detail of this study please read the complete paper here:
« From Coulomb’s force to magnetic force and experiments that show magnetic force parallel to current»
https://www.academia.edu/106863205/From_Coulombs_force_to_magnetic_force_and_experiments_that_show_magnetic_force_parallel_to_current
Kuan PengHI!
I watched, a while ago, some of your experiments! :)
They were OK, for amateurish experiments we can mostly do ..in our home/domestic "laboratories". :)
I got some ideas..of experiments that I kind of never have seen done, at least not on youtube.com.
These...are supposed to clarify some basic aspects of the theory of electricity and magnetism.
Some of the ideas are taken from the works of a great American scientist ..Oleg D. Jefimenko....while other ones
are my own conceptions!
Are you interested in a collaboration? IF you do...please let me know .
Best regards, LL
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