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    Fairy tales rule the Second University of Medicine in Naples, Italy


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    Fairy tales rule the Second University of Medicine in Naples, Italy
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    Fairy tales rule the Second University of Medicine in Naples, Italy
    « on: June 20, 2016, 12:58:54 AM »

    Limitations of Western Medicine and Models of Integration Between
    Medical Systems
    The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. May 2016, 22(5): 343-348.

    Francesco Attena, MD

    Department of Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Second
    of Naples, Naples, Italy.


    This article analyzes two major limitations of Western medicine:
    and incompleteness. From this viewpoint, Western medicine is considered
    incomplete system for the explanation of living matter. Therefore,
    appropriate integration with other medical systems, in particular nonconventional approaches, its knowledge base and interpretations may
    be widened.
    This article presents possible models of integration of Western
    with homeopathy, the latter being viewed as representative of all complementary and alternative medicine. To compare the two, a medical
    system was
    classified into three levels through which it is possible to
    distinguish between
    different medical systems: epistemological (first level), theoretical
    (second level), and operational (third level). These levels are based
    on the
    characterization of any medical system according to, respectively, a
    paradigm, a theory on the functioning of living matter, and clinical
    practice. The three levels are consistent and closely consequential in
    the sense
    that from epistemology derives theory, and from theory derives clinical practice. Within operational integration, four models were identified: contemporary, alternative, sequential, and opportunistic. Theoretical integration
    involves an explanation of living systems covering simultaneously the molecular and physical mechanisms of functioning living matter. Epistemological
    integration provides a more thorough and comprehensive explanation of
    epistemic concepts of indeterminism, holism, and vitalism to complement
    reductionist approach of Western medicine; concepts much discussed by
    Western medicine while lacking the epistemologic basis for their
    Epistemologic integration could be reached with or without a true
    shift and, in the latter, through a model of fusion or subsumption.



    “The US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health and
    Australian National Institute of Complementary Medicine are other
    centers that have developed programs for the integration of CAM into
    Western medicine. In all cases, the implicit or explicit premise is the immutability and supremacy of Western medicine within which the CAM
    must be adapted
    and integrated."

    “This article, starting from a different viewpoint, considers Western
    medicine to be an incomplete system with respect to a wider explanation
    living matter.”

    “On the other hand, because CAM does not represent a single and compact medical system, this article discusses only one nonconventional medical
    system to help make the discourse more concise and simple. Homeopathy
    acupuncture are by far the most widely used CAMs in Western countries; however,
    because acupuncture is only part of the wider medical system of
    Chinese Medicine, homeopathy, a more compact system, was selected to
    elaborate on a possible integration with Western medicine. Accordingly,
    review presents possible models of integration between Western medicine
    homeopathy, the latter viewed as representative of the characteristics
    to all CAMs...This discussion will not address the problem, however
    crucial, regarding the effectiveness of CAM, a topic already widely

    “Table 1. Comparison Between Western Medicine and Homeopathy on Epistemological, Theoretical, and Operational Levels”

    [Contents of the table: I will abbreviate in the form of x vs. y, where
    is the Western medicine entry and y is the homeopathy entry:

    Epistemology - in general: reductionism vs. holism, mechanicism vs.
    vitalism, determinism vs. indeterminism

    Epistemology - in disease interpretation: external causation vs.
    causation; negative expression of the body, disease meaningless vs.
    as expression of body language; single organ disease vs. systemic
    disease .

    Theory on the function of living matter: chemical vs. physical,
    vs. electromagnetic; short-range vs. long-range

    Clinical practice - doctor-patient relationship: specialist approach, targeting a single organ vs. systemic approach, targeting the whole
    explanatory approach vs. comprehensive approach

    Diagnosis: on single organ vs. systemic, on the whole body

    Therapy: chemical molecular therapy vs. physical therapy; strong action
    vs. weak action; local effect vs. systemic effect]

    “...the goal here is to show that Western medicine has two important epistemological limitations: incompleteness and maturity. From these limitations
    derive further theoretical and practical limits.

    “For these very reasons, medicine in general could realize and improve
    patient care on the foundation of a model of integration for different
    systems. Consequently, this article proposes to show, via the exemplar
    homeopathy, that CAM could fill the gaps in and overcome the
    limitations of
    Western medicine. From this premise may arise deeper models of
    of Western medicine with CAM than those hypothesized thus far by

    “...Western medicine has long been blamed for a too reductionist
    to living systems and patients, with all the flaws it entails...The theoretical consequence of this paradigm involves the belief that the
    functioning of living matter is the result of the interaction between molecules.
    The ultimate expression of this attitude is to attribute to DNA all responsibility for the final configuration of living beings.
    medical practice is centered primarily on molecular therapy using

    “Incidentally, the molecular paradigm is not a monolith impermeable to
    other scientific explanations or integrations; in fact, many criticisms
    this paradigm have been published and discussed in orthodox scientific journals. Nevertheless, because of the predominance of the molecular
    paradigm, and
    the idea that it provides a satisfactory explanation of biological
    systems, it tends to underestimate and belittle alternative or
    mechanisms of the functioning of living matter.”

    “Paradoxically, the excess of success has brought the molecular
    into crisis, according to the following sequence. In the early stage of
    paradigm, the simplest and more evident problems are resolved. Later, increasingly more complex and costly problems are solved...Nowadays
    medicine is faced with many problems that are difficult to solve or
    that engage
    an enormous burden of economic resources.”

    “A further explanation [for the rising cost of health care] is that the molecular paradigm responds to the classic economic law of decreasing
    marginal returns, which consists of a gradual reversal of the
    cost/benefit ratio.
    Being now in a very advanced stage of maturity of the paradigm, any
    small increase in knowledge involves ever greater resources: for
    the huge costs engaged for research on AIDS, development and production
    new technologies, and research and application of new drugs.”

    “According to the Kuhnian notion of paradigm, the concept of
    incompleteness derives from the premise that each paradigmatic vision
    is always a
    partial view of the world of interest. In this case, incompleteness
    means that
    adherence to the molecular paradigm is a partial vision of the
    functioning of
    living matter.”

    “Instead, much research, proposed, for example, from studies of CAM,
    shown that living organisms operate not only through the interaction
    molecules but also through physical modalities. These studies, being
    located outside the molecular paradigm, are poorly understood and
    researched by Western medicine. The scientifically advanced mechanism discussed in
    the literature, which can be integrated into the molecular paradigm,
    involves the physics of living systems. This mechanism is fairly well
    known but
    somewhat underestimated. The sensitivity of biological systems to electromagnetic fields is an indirect demonstration of this and
    concerns all types
    of biological systems...this susceptibility might be involved in many empirical situations or common experience:...the therapeutic tradition
    bioenergetics, and homeopathy and other alternative medicines.”

    “An important expression of the physics of biological systems is the
    physics of biological water...Biological water is able to generate
    domains and then to store and transmit information, giving coherence to
    whole system. Indeed, from a scientific viewpoint the physical (electromagnetic) organization of living matter could better explain the long-range
    coherence of biological systems than could molecular organization, and
    from an
    epistemological viewpoint could better explain the concepts of holism

    “Moreover, homeopathy is well known for its systemic and holistic
    to the patient; for anamnesis and diagnosis that are not limited to
    disease but investigate the overall physical and psychological
    characteristics of the patient; and for therapeutic activity based not
    on molecules but
    on water, appropriately diluted and dynamized to resonate with the

    “Therefore, in this case also, the three components of this medical
    are consistent with each other: a holistic, vitalist, and apparently indeterministic epistemology; a long-range and systemic explanation of
    matter; a comprehensive, mind–body, and systemic approach to the
    patient and
    the disease, seen as a disease not of a single organ but of the whole organism; and a weak therapy free of molecules (Table 1). Presumably, hostility
    toward homeopathy is of a paradigmatic nature rather than of a
    nature (i.e., the so-called incommensurability between different

    “Theoretical integration involves an explanation of living systems simultaneously covering a molecular mechanism and a physical mechanism
    of the
    functioning of living matter. Surprisingly, many studies attempt an
    explanation of living systems, implying a theoretical integration of
    two modalities, sometimes also including CAM...Preparata, even 20 years
    ago, suggested that living matter seems governed by the quantum field
    with electrodynamic coherence as a bridge between physics and biology.
    Annila and Baverstock seek solutions in the second law of
    Others seek the study of ‘crowding’ in living systems, such as the
    caused by crowding conditions from the standpoint of statistical
    Another, more recent theory tries to assign to ultra-weak photon
    emission the
    role of nonchemical, distant cellular interaction. Probably the most
    hypothesis is the one we have already discussed concerning the physical properties of biological water. Finally, it cannot be excluded that all
    these studies are resting on a shared and deeper ground, ever

    “Why are all of these studies essentially ignored or undervalued by the scientific community? First, they address topics totally or partly
    beyond the
    competence of biochemical researchers, who thus find it difficult to understand and, more so, judge the quality and plausibility of the
    presented. These difficulties are further increased by the wide
    of these studies. Second, scientists working within a given paradigm
    more resistance to accepting theories that challenge the paradigm and
    not have access to most of the relevant accredited scientific journals
    they are considered heretical.”

    “Theoretical integration of the chemistry and physics of living systems
    the basis and premise of epistemological integration, allowing us to
    overcome the incompleteness of Western medicine. Moreover, it provides
    a more
    thorough and comprehensive explanation of the epistemic concepts of indeterminism, holism, and vitalism to complement the reductionist
    approach of
    Western medicine, concepts that Western medicine talks so much about
    lacking the epistemological basis for its emplacement.”

    “According to the classic Kuhnian approach, when a scientific paradigm
    reaches its maturity and is no longer able to support the recurrent
    it is replaced, after a scientific revolution, by a new scientific
    paradigm. In the present case a fanciful, but theoretically possible, hypothesis
    foresees the birth of a new scientific paradigm whereby the two medical systems of departure are harmonized on a higher level of explanation of
    matter that is not simply attributable to one of the previous two

    “The first step should be the definitive scientific validation of CAM
    rigorous experimental studies.” [followed by teaching in medical
    schools and
    other integration with the health care system]

    “Ideally, deep integration would cause Western medicine and CAM to be
    provided by the same physicians and institutions (e.g., hospitals),
    creating a
    unified model of medicine that might not result in additional economic
    cost. The only certainty in this field is that CAM treatments—consider acupuncture needles or ultra-diluted homeopathic remedies—are
    substantially cheaper
    than the treatments and drugs of Western medicine.”

    Alas, we do not know all and everything about the world, about physics,
    about biology, or medicine. But we try, we try hard, and we have
    achieved a lot.

    To request science to have the total wisdom is an insane idea. To force
    the scientific community to accept fairy tales like homeopathy to be
    part of medicine because our knowledge is incomplete is an insane idea.
    Why on earth should we accept bullshit? Why on earth should we willfully
    do harm to patients? The idea that we must know all is nothing else but
    to be god. Are we god? No. We even can't be god because there are not
    gods. The will to rule the world by magic is infantile. How degenerate
    are the folks at the Second University of Naples in Italy?

    Homöopathie ist nichts als Hütchenspielerbetrug und organisierte Kriminalität http://ariplex.com/folia/archives/565.htm http://ariplex.com/folia/archives/570.htm
    http://ariplex.com/folia/archives/585.htm http://ariplex.com/folia/archives/643.htm

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