• Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT)

    From ironjustice@21:1/5 to All on Mon Nov 13 22:22:09 2017
    Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT) as a biomarker of cognitive decline at the end of life: contrasting age and time to death trajectories.
    Praetorius Björk M1, Johansson B1.
    Int Psychogeriatr. 2017 Nov 7:1-10. doi: 10.1017/S1041610217002393.
    A recently published study suggests that Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT) in midlife is related to an increased risk of dementia. In the present longitudinal study, we explore the effects of serum GGT on cognitive decline and dementia also in more
    advanced ages.
    We analyzed GGT in a sample of 452 individuals, aged 80 years and older at baseline, with the purpose to explore subsequent effects on cognitive performance. We specifically modeled GGT to cognitive change, time to death, and dementia.
    Our main finding is that a higher level of GGT is associated with cognitive decline prior to death and vascular dementia in late life. These findings were evident across cognitive domains.
    This is the first longitudinal study to report on significant associations in late life between GGT, cognitive performance and dementia. Further research is needed to examine the underlying mechanisms of GGT as a marker of age-related cognitive decline.

    Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT); biomarkers; cognitive testing; longitudinal studies; vascular dementia
    PMID: 29108523 DOI: 10.1017/S1041610217002393


    "dietary heme iron was positively related to serum GGT level"

    Is serum gamma glutamyltransferase a marker of oxidative stress?
    Free Radic Res. 2004 Jun;38(6):535-9.
    Lee DH, Blomhoff R, Jacobs DR Jr.
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Health Promotion Research Center, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

    The primary role of cellular gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) is to metabolize extracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), allowing for precursor amino acids to be assimilated and reutilized for intracellular GSH synthesis. Paradoxically, recent experimental studies indicate that cellular GGT may also be involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species in the presence of iron or other transition metals. Although the relationship between cellular GGT and serum GGT is not known and serum GGT activity has been commonly used as a marker for
    excessive alcohol consumption or liver diseases, our series of epidemiological studies consistently suggest that serum GGT within its normal range might be an early and sensitive enzyme related to oxidative stress. For example, serum and dietary antioxidant vitamins had inverse, dose-response relations to serum GGT level within its
    normal range, whereas dietary heme iron was positively related to serum GGT level. More importantly, serum GGT level within its normal range positively predicted F2-isoprostanes, an oxidative damage product of arachidonic acid, and fibrinogen and C-
    reactive protein, markers of
    inflammation, which were measured 5 or 15 years later, in dose-response manners. These findings suggest that strong associations of serum GGT with many cardiovascular risk factors and/or events might be explained by a mechanism related to oxidative stress. Even though studies on serum and/or cellular GGT is at a beginning
    stage, our epidemiological findings suggest that serum GGT might be useful in studying oxidative stress-related issues in both epidemiological and clinical settings.

    PMID: 15346644

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