• Omnivorous Diet Accelerates Atherosclerosis

    From ironjustice@21:1/5 to All on Tue Dec 25 08:40:57 2018
    l-Carnitine in omnivorous diets induces an atherogenic gut microbial pathway in humans.
    J Clin Invest. 2018 Dec 10. pii: 94601. doi: 10.1172/JCI94601.
    Koeth RA1,2,3, Lam-Galvez BR4, Kirsop J1,2, Wang Z1,2, Levison BS1, Gu X1,2, Copeland MF4, Bartlett D1, Cody DB4, Dai HJ5, Culley MK1, Li XS1,2, Fu X1,2, Wu Y6, Li L1,2, DiDonato JA1,2, Tang WHW1,2,3, Garcia-Garcia JC4, Hazen SL1,2,3.
    Author information
    Abstract
    BACKGROUND:
    l-Carnitine, an abundant nutrient in red meat, accelerates atherosclerosis in mice via gut microbiota-dependent formation of trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) via a multistep pathway involving an atherogenic intermediate, γ-
    butyrobetaine (γBB). The contribution of γBB in gut microbiota-dependent l-carnitine metabolism in humans is unknown.

    METHODS:
    Omnivores and vegans/vegetarians ingested deuterium-labeled l-carnitine (d3-l-carnitine) or γBB (d9-γBB), and both plasma metabolites and fecal polymicrobial transformations were examined at baseline, following oral antibiotics, or following chronic (
    2 months) l-carnitine supplementation. Human fecal commensals capable of performing each step of the l-carnitine→γBB→TMA transformation were identified.

    RESULTS:
    Studies with oral d3-l-carnitine or d9-γBB before versus after antibiotic exposure revealed gut microbiota contribution to the initial 2 steps in a metaorganismal l-carnitine→γBB→TMA→TMAO pathway in subjects. Moreover, a striking increase in d3-
    TMAO generation was observed in omnivores over vegans/vegetarians (>20-fold; P = 0.001) following oral d3-l-carnitine ingestion, whereas fasting endogenous plasma l-carnitine and γBB levels were similar in vegans/vegetarians (n = 32) versus omnivores (n
    = 40). Fecal metabolic transformation studies, and oral isotope tracer studies before versus after chronic l-carnitine supplementation, revealed that omnivores and vegans/vegetarians alike rapidly converted carnitine to γBB, whereas the second gut
    microbial transformation, γBB→TMA, was diet inducible (l-carnitine, omnivorous). Extensive anaerobic subculturing of human feces identified no single commensal capable of l-carnitine→TMA transformation, multiple community members that converted l-
    carnitine to γBB, and only 1 Clostridiales bacterium, Emergencia timonensis, that converted γBB to TMA. In coculture, E. timonensis promoted the complete l-carnitine→TMA transformation.

    CONCLUSION:
    In humans, dietary l-carnitine is converted into the atherosclerosis- and thrombosis-promoting metabolite TMAO via 2 sequential gut microbiota-dependent transformations: (a) initial rapid generation of the atherogenic intermediate γBB, followed by (b)
    transformation into TMA via low-abundance microbiota in omnivores, and to a markedly lower extent, in vegans/vegetarians. Gut microbiota γBB→TMA/TMAO transformation is induced by omnivorous dietary patterns and chronic l-carnitine exposure.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION:
    ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01731236.

    FUNDING:
    NIH and Office of Dietary Supplements grants HL103866, HL126827, and DK106000, and the Leducq Foundation.

    KEYWORDS:
    Atherosclerosis; Cardiology; Cardiovascular disease; Vascular Biology

    PMID: 30530985 DOI: 10.1172/JCI94601

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