• Multiple sclerosis (2/2)

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    Ann Neurol 1983 Jun;13(6):625-32. Induction of brain edema following intracerebral injection of arachidonic acid. Chan PH, Fishman RA, Caronna J, Schmidley JW, Prioleau G, Lee J "Intracerebral injection of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including
    linolenic acid (18:3) and arachidonic acid (20:4), caused significant increases in cerebral water and sodium content concomitant with decreases in potassium content and Na+- and K+- dependent adenosine triphosphatase activity. There was gross and
    microscopic evidence of edema. Saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid were not effective in inducing brain edema. The [125I]-bovine serum albumin spaces increased twofold and threefold at 24 hours with 18:3 and 20:4, respectively,
    indicating vasogenic edema with increased permeability of brain endothelial cells" "These data indicate that arachidonic acid and other PUFAs have the ability to induce vasogenic and cellular brain edema and further support the hypothesis that the
    degradation of phospholipids and accumulation of PUFAs, particularly arachidonic acid, initiate the development of brain edema in various disease states."

    Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997 Jan;29(1):58-62. Effects of acute physical exercise on central serotonergic systems. Chaouloff F "Works from the 1980's have established that acute running increases brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) synthesis in two
    ways. Lipolysis-elicited release of free fatty acids in the blood compartment displaces the binding of the essential amino acid tryptophan to albumin, thereby increasing the concentration of the so-called "free tryptophan" portion, and because exercise
    increases the ratio of circulating free tryptophan to the sum of the concentrations of the amino acids that compete with tryptophan for uptake at the blood-brain barrier level, tryptophan enters markedly in the brain compartment." "Indirect indices of 5-
    HT functions open the possibility that acute exercise-induced increases in 5-HT biosynthesis are associated with (or lead to) increases in 5-HT release."

    Med Hypotheses 1995 Nov;45(5):455-8. Melanin, melatonin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and the susceptibility to autoimmune demyelination: a rationale for light therapy in multiple sclerosis. Constantinescu CS "The hypothesis formulated here is based
    on the observation that resistance to multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is associated with dark skin pigmentation. While this may signify a protective role for melanin against environmental factors producing oxidative
    damage, the mechanism postulated here is that susceptibility to autoimmune demyelination is influenced by hormonal factors, i.e. the neurohormones melatonin and melanocyte stimulating hormone, which have opposing effects on immune functions and, the same
    time, are important determinants of the individual's production of melanin."

    Neurosci Lett 1989 Nov 6;105(3):246-50. Presence of Schwann cells in neurodegenerative lesions of the central nervous system. Dusart I, Isacson O, Nothias F, Gumpel M, Peschanski M Ultrastructural analysis of neurodegenerative CNS lesions produced by an
    excitotoxic substance revealed that the majority of cells ensheathing axons were not oligodendrocytes. By their morphology and the presence of both a basal lamina and collagen fibers they were identified as Schwann cells. The presence of Schwann cells,
    whose growth-promoting role in the peripheral nervous system has been largely documented, may account for the development of regenerating growth cones which have been observed in the excitotoxically lesioned central nervous system. Further support for
    this hypothesis came from the analysis of fetal neural transplants implanted into the lesioned area. Schwann cells ensheathing axons were indeed numerous in the neuron-depleted area surrounding the transplants, where neurite outgrowth of graft origin

    J Neuroimmunol 2000 Nov 1;111(1-2):77-85. Female sex steroids: effects upon microglial cell activation. Drew PD, Chavis JA.

    Neurology 1999 Nov 10;53(8):1876-9 Cerebrospinal fluid isoprostane shows oxidative stress in patients with multiple sclerosis. Greco A, Minghetti L, Sette G, Fieschi C, Levi G "The CSF level of the isoprostane 8-epi-prostaglandin (PG)-F2alpha (a reliable
    marker of oxidative stress in vivo) was three times higher in subjects with definite MS than in a benchmark group of subjects with other neurologic diseases."

    J Intern Med 1989 Oct;226(4):241-4. Serum sex hormone and gonadotropin concentrations in premenopausal women with multiple sclerosis. Grinsted L, Heltberg A, Hagen C, Djursing H.

    Am J Gastroenterol 1977 Dec;68(6):560-5. Multiple sclerosis and malabsorption. Gupta JK, Ingegno AP, Cook AW, Pertschuk LP.

    Free Radic Res 1997 Apr;26(4):351-62. Toxicity of polyunsaturated fatty acid esters for human monocyte-macrophages: the anomalous behaviour of cholesteryl linolenate. Hardwick SJ, Carpenter KL, Law NS, Van Der Veen C, Marchant CE, Hird R, Mitchinson MJ. "
    The triglycerides showed a direct relationship between toxicity and increasing unsaturation, which in turn correlated with increasing susceptibility to oxidation." "Triarachidonin (20:4; omega-6), trieicosapentaenoin (20:5; omega-3) and
    tridocosahexaenoin (22:6; omega-3) were profoundly and rapidly toxic. There was a similar relationship between toxicity and increasing unsaturation for most of the cholesterol esters, but cholesteryl linolenate was apparently anomalous, being non-toxic
    in spite of possessing three double bonds and being extensively oxidised." "The toxicity of triglycerides suggests that polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products are also toxic."

    J Clin Invest 1990 Oct;86(4):1115-23. Essential fatty acid deficiency ameliorates acute renal dysfunction in the rat after the administration of the aminonucleoside of puromycin. Harris KP, Lefkowith JB, Klahr S, Schreiner GF.

    Mikrobiyol Bul 1989 Oct;23(4):342-7. [Leukotrienes and neurological diseases]. [Article in Turkish] Irkec C, Ercan S, Irkec M "LTC4 levels were found to be elevated in MS and Behcet patient in comparison with controls. Augmentation of LTC4 levels
    underlines the fact that leukotrienes may be held responsible the pathogenesis of these disorders."

    Lancet 1982 Feb 13;1(8268):380-6. Evidence for subacute fat embolism as the cause of multiple sclerosis. James PB "The neurological features of decompression sickness, which is thought to be due to gas embolism, are similar to those of multiple sclerosis
    (MS). This similarity suggested the re-examination of a concept, first proposed in 1882, that the demyelination in MS is due to venous thrombosis. Unfortunately, although the plaques of MS are often perivenular, thromboses are not always present.
    Nevertheless, vascular theories can explain the topography of the lesions in MS." "There is also evidence in man that fat may lodge in the microcirculation of the nervous system and cause distal perivenous oedema with the loss of myelin from axons."

    J Clin Pathol 1979 Oct;32(10):1025-9. Antithrombin activities in childhood malnutrition. Jimenez RA, Jimenez E, Ingram GI, Mora LA, Atmetlla F, Carrillo JM, Vargas W.

    Arch Latinoam Nutr 1980 Dec;30(4):580-9. [Prethrombosis in child malnutrition]. Jimenez R, Jimenez E, Mora LA, Vargas W, Atmetlla F, Carrillo JM

    Stroke 1991 Nov;22(11):1448-51. Platelet secretory products may contribute to neuronal injury. Joseph R, Tsering C, Grunfeld S, Welch KM "The view that certain endogenous substances, such as glutamate, may also contribute to neuronal injury is now
    reasonably well established. Blood platelets are known to contain and secrete a number of substances that have been associated with neuronal dysfunction. Therefore, we hypothesize that a high concentration (approximately several thousand-fold higher than
    in plasma, in our estimation) of locally released platelet secretory products derived from the causative thrombus may contribute to neuronal injury and promote reactive gliosis." "We further observed that serotonin, a major platelet product, has
    neurotoxic properties."

    Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 1985;85(2):198-206. [Role of disorders of the hemostatic system in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and ways of correcting them]. [Article in Russian] Karlov VA, Makarov VA, Savina EB, Seleznev AN, Savin AA
    The changes in the hemostatic system were studied in 77 patients with different patterns of disseminated sclerosis (DS). The studies demonstrated activation of both vasculothrombocytic and coagulation components of hemostasis as well as of fibrinolytic
    blood properties. The latent course of the disseminated intravascular coagulation was revealed in 20.7% of cases. The role of hemostatic disorders in the pathogenetic mechanisms of DS is discussed. The patients with DS received pathogenetic treatment
    including drugs eliminating hemostatic disorders, which was beneficial for most patients.

    Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 1990;90(11):47-50. [Changes in rheological properties of blood in multiple sclerosis and their correction]. [Article in Russian] Karlov VA, Savin AA, Smertina LP, Redchits EG, Seleznev AN, Svetailo LI, Margosiuk
    NV, Stulin ID As many as 45 patients with multiple sclerosis were examined for rheological blood properties. As compared to controls, the group under examination manifested the rise of plasma viscosity, acceleration of red blood cell aggregation. 26.2%
    of patients demonstrated an appreciable increase of blood viscosity. It is assumed that these changes contribute to the deterioration of microcirculation and aggravate the demyelinating process. Correction of the rheological properties of the blood by
    plasmapheresis coupled with other methods of pathogenetic therapy turned out effective.

    Brain Res 1997 Jun 20;760(1-2):298-303 Iron deposits in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease brains. LeVine SM "In summary, the localization of iron deposition in MS and AD brains indicates potential sites where iron could promote oxidative damage
    in these disease states."

    Circ Shock 1990 Jun;31(2):159-70. Resistance of essential fatty acid-deficient rats to endotoxin-induced increases in vascular permeability. Li EJ, Cook JA, Spicer KM, Wise WC, Rokach J, Halushka PV.

    FEBS Lett 1978 Nov 1;95(1):181-4. Selective inactivation of the NADH-ubiquinone segment of the respiratory chain of submitochondrial particles by endogenous free fatty acids during hyperthermia. Ludwig P, Bartels M, Schewe T, Rapoport S.

    J Pain Symptom Manage 2000 Nov;20(5):388-91. Ondansetron in multiple sclerosis. Macleod AD. "Two young women with chronic nausea and vertigo caused by multiple sclerosis responded to the introduction and maintenance of the 5HT3 receptor antagonist,

    Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1994 Jul-Aug;73(4):283-5. Intracranial venous thrombosis in a patient with multiple sclerosis. A case report and review of contraceptive alternatives in patients with disabilities. Malanga GA, Gangemi E.

    Folia Biol (Praha) 1999;45(4):133-41. Essential fatty acids and related molecular and cellular mechanisms in multiple sclerosis: new looks at old concepts. Mayer M.

    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994 Sep;79(3):848-53. Multiple sclerosis is associated with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. Michelson D, Stone L, Galliven E, Magiakou MA, Chrousos GP, Sternberg EM, Gold PW "Compared to matched
    controls, patients with MS had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels at baseline. Despite this hypercortisolism and in contrast to patients with depression who had similar elevations in plasma cortisol levels, patients with MS showed normal, rather
    than blunted, plasma ACTH responses to ovine CRH, suggesting that the pathophysiology of hypercortisolism in MS is different from that in depression." "Taken together, these findings are compatible with data from studies of experimental animals exposed
    to chronic inflammatory stress, which showed mild increased activation of the HPA axis with increased relative activity of AVP in the regulation of the pituitary-adrenal axis."

    Exp Neurol 1977 Oct;57(1):142-57. Tryptophan availability: relation to elevated brain serotonin in developmentally protein-malnourished rats. Miller M, Leahy JP, Stern WC, Morgane PJ, Resnick O.

    Am J Physiol 1989 Oct;257(4 Pt 2):H1192-9. Lung injury caused by cobra venom factor is reduced in rats raised on an essential fatty acid-deficient diet. Morganroth ML, Schoeneich SO, Till GO, Pickett W, Ward PA.

    Eur J Haematol 2000 Jul;65(1):82-3. More on the relationship between cystic fibrosis and venous thrombosis. Mori PG, Acquila M, Bicocchi MP, Bottini F, Romano L. Letter

    Acta Neurol Scand 1982 Oct;66(4):497-504, Platelet aggregation and multiple sclerosis. Neu IS, Prosiegel M, Pfaffenrath V Measurements of blood platelet aggregation were carried out in 30 patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and in 15 healthy
    individuals. Compared with the control group, the MS patients showed an increase in both spontaneous and induced (ADP and serotonin) platelet aggregation. The possible pathogenetic significance of these results is discussed.

    Neurology 1975 Aug;25(8):713-6. Schwann cells and regenerated peripheral myelin in multiple sclerosis: an ultrastructural study. Ogata J, Feigin I Tissue of a multiple sclerosis plaque in the brachium conjunctivum of the pons known to contain peripheral
    myelin by light microscopic studies were removed from the paraffin block and processed for electron microscopic studies. The cells related to the peripheral myelin possessed the ultrastructural characteristics of Schwann cells, with basement membranes
    and associated collagen fibers. No continuity was seen with the peripheral within the central nervous tissues by selective maturation of multipotential primitive reticular cells, a phenomenon consistent with the view that Schwann cells are mesenchymal in

    Tohoku J Exp Med 1999 Dec;189(4):259-65. Elevated plasma level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Onodera H, Nakashima I, Fujihara K, Nagata T, Itoyama Y "Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an
    inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and one of the earliest changes in inflammatory focus involves the activation of vascular endothelial cells." "The level of plasma PAI-1 was significantly higher in active MS cases when
    compared to stable MS and controls." "These results suggested that PAI-1 plasma levels are associated with MS disease activity and is a good marker for MS relapse."

    J Mol Med 1997 Mar;75(3):174-86. The role of nitric oxide in multiple sclerosis. Parkinson JF, Mitrovic B, Merrill JE "Elevated nitric oxide bio-synthesis has been associated with nonspecific immune-mediated cellular cytotoxicity and the pathogenesis of
    chronic, inflammatory autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis."

    Fed Proc 1987 Jan;46(1):91-6. Role of the clotting system in the pathogenesis of neuroimmunologic disease. Paterson PY, Koh CS, Kwaan HC "Our studies of the clotting system and ensuing fibrinolysis implicate coagulation and cleavage of fibrin within or
    on the luminal surface of the cerebrovasculature as events initiating the inflammation characterizing EAE." "We postulate that the critical event precipitating EAE is binding of circulating MBP-reactive immune effector cells to MBP immunodeterminants on
    the surface of cerebrovascular endothelial cells. Coagulation and ensuing fibrinolysis occur at sites of binding of effector cells to cerebrovascular endothelium. Release of biologically active peptides cleaved from fibrin open the BBB, thereby setting
    the stage for the cascade of inflammatory events culminating in clinical manifestations of EAE."

    Neurotoxicology 1998 Aug-Oct;19 (4-5):599-603. In vitro effect of the cysteine metabolites homocysteic acid, homocysteine and cysteic acid upon human neuronal cell lines. Parsons RB, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Williams AC "Cysteine (CYS) is a non-essential
    amino acid which elicits excitotoxic properties via the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor.. CYS levels are known to be elevated in association with neurological disease such as Alzheimers Disease (AD) and Parkinsons Disease (
    PD)." "These results show that toxic responses are cell-type specific for CYS and its metabolites and this may be reflected in the patterns of neurodegeneration observed in such diseases as AD and PD."

    WMJ 1983 Mar-Apr;55(2):146-50. [Effect of tryptophan excess in a diet on amino acid composition of skin collagen and on an initial stage of protein biosynthesis in rat liver]. Pechenova TN, Sushkova VV, Solodova EV, Gulyi MF Protein deficiency and
    tryptophane load against its background lead to the acid-soluble collagen synthesis in the rat skin. The amino acid composition of the collagen differs from the norm. This is accompanied by changes in the free amino acid pool of blood serum and liver,
    under tryptophane load the free amino acids pool of the liver increasing twice as high. At the same time protein deficiency increases and tryptophane load decreases the level of tRNA amino acylation with tryptophane in the animal liver. Thus, protein
    deficiency and tryptophane load against its background cause deep changes in the protein biosynthesis.

    Fed Proc 1987 Jan;46(1):91-6. Role of the clotting system in the pathogenesis of neuroimmunologic disease. Paterson PY, Koh CS, Kwaan HC "Our studies of the clotting system and ensuing fibrinolysis implicate coagulation and cleavage of fibrin within or
    on the luminal surface of the cerebrovasculature as events initiating the inflammation characterizing EAE." "We postulate that the critical event precipitating EAE is binding of circulating MBP-reactive immune effector cells to MBP immunodeterminants on
    the surface of cerebrovascular endothelial cells. Coagulation and ensuing fibrinolysis occur at sites of binding of effector cells to cerebrovascular endothelium. Release of biologically active peptides cleaved from fibrin open the BBB, thereby setting
    the stage for the cascade of inflammatory events culminating in clinical manifestations of EAE."

    Rev Esp Fisiol 1983 Mar;39(1):39-44. Intralipid and free plasmatic tryptophan in vitro. Pena JM, Aulesa C, Vinas O, Bosch J, Farriol M, Schwartz S "In an attempt to investigate the role of the lipidic emulsion Intralipid in the development of metabolic
    encephalopathy in a patient showing high free tryptophan levels, the relationship between lipidic emulsion and free tryptophan was examined in in vitro experiments. The addition of intralipid to normal serum produces an immediate increase in non-
    esterified fatty acids and a parallel rise in free tryptophan. Moreover, when serum with intralipid is incubated at 37 degrees C, the lipases release new non-esterified fatty acids and the free tryptophan increases proportionally." "It is concluded that
    intralipid causes an increase in free tryptophan levels. It is known that in vivo free tryptophan modulates 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and thus may be considered a possible causal agent for encephalopathy."

    Med Hypotheses 1980 May;6(5):545-557. Fatty acids, fibrinogen and blood flow: a general mechanism for hyperfibrinogenemia and its pathologic consequences. Pickart LR, Thaler MM Plasma fibrinogen is elevated in various stressful states and conditions in
    which active mobilization of free fatty acids (FFA) occurs. Reduction of plasma FFA by an assortment of hypolipidemic drugs is consistently followed by a decrease in the accompanying hyperfibrinogenemia. A direct link between FFA and fibrinogen has been
    demonstrated in animals, and in experiments employing incubated liver slices. Based on these clinical and experimental observations, we postulate that hepatic fibrinogen synthesis is stimulated by FFA. Since fibrinogen is a major determinant of whole
    blood viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation, and sludging of red cells in terminal and pre-terminal blood vessels, we propose that microcirculatory blood flow may be impaired in the presence of chronically elevated plasma FFA levls. Consequently,
    hypolipidemic drugs may be effective in prevention of circulatory complications associated with FFA-induced hyperfibrinogenemia.

    Neurologia 1996 Aug-Sep;11(7):272. [Exacerbation of spasticity induced by serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Letter]. del Real MA, Hernandez A, Vaamonde J, Gudin M

    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997 Mar;62(3):282-4. Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, improves cerebellar tremor. Rice GP, Lesaux J, Vandervoort P, Macewan L, Ebers GC. "It has been previously shown that ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, can ameliorate
    vertigo in patients with acute brainstem disorders. A coincidental benefit was the improvement of cerebellar tremor in some patients with both vertigo and tremor. To further evaluate this effect, a placebo controlled, double blind, crossover study was
    conducted of a single dose of intravenous ondansetron in 20 patients with cerebellar tremor caused by multiple sclerosis, cerebellar degeneration, or drug toxicity." "Thirteen of 19 patients were deemed to have improved spiral copying after treatment
    with ondansetron when compared with baseline performance."

    Neurologia 1993 Oct;8(8):252-5. [Retinal periphlebitis in multiple sclerosis. A prospective study]. Rio J, Colin A, Salvador F, Tintore M, Viguera ML, Montalban J, Codina A "In three cases (12.5%) retinal periphlebitis was observed." "Given the absence
    of myelin in the retina, the presence of retinal periphlebitis suggests the existence of a vascular mechanism in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis."

    Int J Neurosci 1995 Dec;83(3-4):187-98. Premenstrual exacerbation of symptoms in multiple sclerosis is attenuated by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields. Sandyk R. "The present report concerns two women with chronic progressive stage MS who
    experienced, coincident with increasing functional disability, regular worsening of their symptoms beginning about a week before menstruation and abating with the onset of menstruation. These symptoms resolved two months after the initiation of treatment
    with EMFs."

    J Physiol Biochem 1998 Dec;54(4):229-37. The role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Santiago E, Perez-Mediavilla LA, Lopez-Moratalla N "The inducible NOS (iNOS) is associated with the development of a number of autoimmune
    diseases." "Induction of the enzyme is effected by proinflammatory cytokines, immunomodulating peptides, and even beta-endorphin through a mechanism involving an increase in cAMP. An excessive production of NO has been implicated in the severe lesions
    observed in multiple sclerosis (MS)."

    J Neurol 1980 Jan;222(3):177-82. Cerebrospinal fluid lipids in demyelinating disease. II. Linoleic acid as an index of impaired blood-CSF barrier. Seidel D, Heipertz R, Weisner B "The linoleic acid content of control CSF (1.6 +/- 0.8 nMol/ml) is
    considerably lower than the corresponding serum value (2.5--4.1 muMol/ml). Although CSF from MS patients contains a significantly higher linoleic acid concentration than controls the close correlation between CSF linoleic acid and CSF albumin is
    maintained. The high CSF concentration of cholesterol esters rich in linoleic acid, which are abundant in serum but represent only traces in CNS lipids, points towards an impaired BBB function as the cause of CSF linoleic increase. We are able to show
    that both albumin and linoleic acid are suitable as "serum markers...."

    J Neurol Sci 1987 Feb;77(2-3):147-52. Chronic periphlebitis retinae in multiple sclerosis. A histopathological study. Shaw PJ, Smith NM, Ince PG, Bates D Retinal periphlebitis in multiple sclerosis is of particular interest in relation to our
    understanding of the pathogenesis of the demyelinating central nervous system plaques. Previous studies have largely been clinical, and there is little detailed histopathological information relating to this condition. We present the first detailed
    report in the neurological literature on the histological findings in chronic periphlebitis retinae associated with multiple sclerosis. The most significant abnormalities of the affected retinal veins were the presence of thick laminated collagen in the
    wall, associated with a scanty infiltration of plasma cells.

    Am Heart J 2000 Aug;140(2):212-8. Low intracellular magnesium levels promote platelet-dependent thrombosis in patients with coronary artery disease. Shechter M, Merz CN, Rude RK, Paul Labrador MJ, Meisel SR, Shah PK, Kaul S.

    J Neurochem 1996 Mar;66(3):1157-66. Mast cell activation causes delayed neurodegeneration in mixed hippocampal cultures via the nitric oxide pathway. Skaper SD, Facci L, Romanello S, Leon A. "Neurotoxicity required a prolonged period (12 h) of mast cell
    incubation, and appeared to depend largely on elaboration of the free radical nitric oxide by astrocytes." "Myelin basic protein and 17 beta-estradiol had a synergistic action on the induction of mast cell-associated neuronal injury." "Further,
    palmitoylethanolamide, which has been reported to reduce mast cell activation by a local autacoid mechanism, decreased neuron loss resulting from mast cell stimulation in the mixed cultures but not that caused by direct cytokine induction of astrocytic
    nitric oxide synthase." "These results support the notion that brain mast cells could participate in the pathophysiology of chronic neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases of the nervous system, and suggest that down-modulation of mast cell
    activation in such conditions could be of therapeutic benefit."

    International Journal of Microcirculation--Clinical and Experimental, 1996, Vol 16, Iss 5, pp 266-270. Hyperventilation enhances transcapillary diffusion of sodium fluorescein. J Steurer, D Schiesser, C Stey, W Vetter, MV Elzi, JP Barras, UK Franzeck. "
    Voluntary hyperventilation (HV) provokes hemoconcentration due to a loss of fluid from the intravascular space." "The exact, mechanism of enhanced transcapillary diffusion of Na fluorescein is not known, The distinct increase in FLI without a significant
    change in microvascular skin flux suggests an HV-induced increase in capillary pressure or an enhancement in capillary permeability for water and small solutes."

    Kidney Int 1992 May;41(5):1245-53. Essential fatty acid deficiency normalizes function and histology in rat nephrotoxic nephritis. Takahashi K, Kato T, Schreiner GF, Ebert J, Badr KF.

    Arthritis Rheum 1981 Aug;24 (8):1054-6. Sex steroid hormones and systemic lupus erythematosus. Talal N.

    Clin Rheum Dis 1982 Apr;8(1):23-8. Sex hormones and modulation of immune response in SLE. Talal N.

    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1986;475:320-8. Hormonal approaches to immunotherapy of autoimmune disease. Talal N, Ahmed SA, Dauphinee M.

    Ann Nucl Med 1998 Apr;12(2):89-94. Clinical significance of reduced cerebral metabolism in multiple sclerosis: a combined PET and MRI study. Sun X, Tanaka M, Kondo S, Okamoto K, Hirai S "The severity of cerebral hypometabolism was also related to the
    number of relapses." "Our results suggest that measurement of cerebral metabolism in MS has the potential to be an objective marker for monitoring disease activity and to provide prognostic information."

    Fed Proc 1987 Jan;46(1):118-26. Pathway to carrageenan-induced inflammation in the hind limb of the rat. Vinegar R, Truax JF, Selph JL, Johnston PR, Venable AL, McKenzie KK "Antiserotonin agents inhibited the hypoalgesia and part of the edema. These
    findings and histological observations suggested that dermal mast cells were injured by C. The hyperalgesia and part of the edema were sensitive to arachidonate cyclooxygenase inhibitors (AACOIs). It is speculated that injured mast cells metabolize
    arachidonic acid and reactive intermediates, not prostaglandins, mediate the NPIR hyperalgesia and part of the edema." "Arachidonic acid metabolism by neutrophils is speculated to produce the mediators of phagocytic inflammatory (PI) edema and

    SOURCE: https://raypeat.com/articles/articles/ms.shtml

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