• ape & human evolution needs total revision

    From marc verhaegen@21:1/5 to All on Mon Apr 17 05:52:48 2023
    4 common prejudices with 0 evidence:
    it's often assumed that human ancestors
    1) became bipedal (BP) when we left the trees for the ground??
    2) evolved in Africa: Out-of-Africa (OoA)??
    3) lived in savannas???
    4) had australopithecine ancestors??

    These are unproven anthropo- & afro-centric just-so pre-assumptions:
    - "only humans are BP": BP = “hominin” = closer to us than to apes,
    - Darwin thought “Out of Africa”: Pan & Gorilla live in Africa,
    - in Africa, when you leave the jungle, you come in savanna,
    - apith fossils are African, they were BP, and had some humanlike anatomical traits.

    Therefore, many (most?) PAs still assume, without evidence:
    1) we became BP after/when we split from Pan, and left the forests,
    2) “hominins” & Homo originated in Africa (OoA),
    3) we walked/ran bipedally in savannas (e.g. “endurance-running”),
    4) BP fossils in Africa incl. apiths are “hominin” (anthropocentric belief: Pan & Gorilla have no fossils!?).
    But knuckle-walking evolved in parallel in Pan//Gorilla, I had already showed, and we never had been KWing:
    1) early-Miocene Hominoidea were already BP=vertical waders-climbers in swamp forests (humans & gibbons still are BP), google aquarboreal,
    2) Mio-Pliocene Hominoidea lived along N-Tethys Ocean coasts (hylobatids & pongids still live in SE.Asia),
    3) human ancestors have always been waterside, cf. physiology, anatomy, diet+DHA, island colonizations, intercontin.dispersals etc.etc.,
    4) E.Afr.apiths resemble Gorilla > Pan > Homo, S.Afr.apiths resemble Pan > Homo or Gorilla (e.g. my Hum.Evol.papers).

    Possible partial aquarboreal convergence: Nasalis?
    Proboscis-monkeys (largest colobine, upright body, rel.long legs…) in mangrove forests climb, sit, wade bipedally, often arms overhead.

    Most likely scenario IMO:
    Plate Tectonics & Hominoid Splittings:
    c 30 Ma India approaching S-Asia formed island archipels: coastal forests++.
    c 25 Ma Catarrhini reaching these islands became wading bipedally + climbing arms overhead -> aquarboreal Hominoidea.
    c 20 Ma India further underneath Asia split hylobatids (E) & other=great apes (W), both following N-Tethys coastal forests (E vs W).
    c 15 Ma the Mesopotamian Seaway Closure split pongids-sivapiths (E) & hominids-dryopiths (W: Medit.Sea + incipient Red Sea swamp forests).
    c 8 Ma in Red Sea: N-Rift fm, followed by Gorilla ->Afar ->Praeanthropus afarensis Lucy etc.->boisei -> today G.gorilla & G.beringei.
    c 5 Ma the Red Sea opening into the Gulf (Francesca Mansfield thinks caused by Zanclean mega-flood 5.33 Ma) split Homo & Pan:
    – Pan went right: E.Afr.coastal forests ->S-Rift->Transvaal ->Au.africanus ->robustus (// Gorilla afar.->boisei) ->today P.troglodytes & P.paniscus,
    – Homo went left: S.Asian coasts ->Java early-Pleist.H.erectus ->shallow-diving: pachy-osteo-sclerosis, DHA in seafood, brain++, stone tools, shell engravings...
    mid->late-Pleist.: diving->wading->walking H.sapiens.

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)