• [ANS] ANS-080 AMSAT News Service Weekly Bulletins

    From Paul Stoetzer@21:1/5 to All on Sun Mar 21 11:02:13 2021
    XPost: rec.radio.info


    The AMSAT News Service bulletins are a free, weekly news and information service of AMSAT, The Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation. ANS publishes
    news related to Amateur Radio in Space including reports on the activities
    of a worldwide group of Amateur Radio operators who share an active
    interest in designing, building, launching and communicating through analog
    and digital Amateur Radio satellites.

    The news feed on http://www.amsat.org publishes news of Amateur Radio in
    Space as soon as our volunteers can post it.

    Please send any amateur satellite news or reports to: ans-editor@amsat.org

    You can sign up for free e-mail delivery of the AMSAT News Service
    Bulletins via the ANS List; to join this list see: https://mailman.amsat.org/postorius/lists/ans.amsat.org/

    In this edition:

    * January/February 2021 Issue of The AMSAT Journal Now Available
    * Apogee View - January/February 2021
    * AMSAT Vice President - Engineering Jerry Buxton, N0JY, Presents at JAMSAT Symposium
    * ARISS Columbus Radio Station Once Again Operational!
    * Houston AMSAT Net #1400 and 28 Years
    * Soyuz Launch Carrying Several Amateur Radio Payloads Delayed
    * Changes to AMSAT TLE Distribution for March 18, 2021
    * ARISS News
    * Upcoming Satellite Operations
    * Hamfests, Conventions, Maker Faires, and Other Events
    * Satellite Shorts From All Over

    AMSAT News Service Bulletin 080.01
    From: Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation
    712 H Street NE Suite 1653
    Washington, DC 20002

    DATE 2021 Mar 21

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    January/February 2021 Issue of The AMSAT Journal Now Available

    The January/February 2021 issue of The AMSAT Journal is now available to
    AMSAT members on AMSAT’s Member Portal.

    The AMSAT Journal is a bi-monthly digital magazine for amateur radio in
    space enthusiasts, published by the Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation (AMSAT). Each issue is your source for hardware and software projects, technical tips, STEM initiatives, operational activities, and news from
    around the world.

    Inside the Current Issue:

    * Apogee View – Robert Bankston, KE4AL
    * For Beginners — Amateur Radio Satellite Primer IX – Keith
    * The Yolinda Lindenblad: A Wideband Omnidirectional Circularly-polarized Antenna – Lapo Pieri, IK5NAX
    * Martha Saragovitz Retires – Keith Baker, KB1SF/VA3KSF & Joe Korno

    AMSAT members can access the Journal at https://launch.amsat.org/The_AMSAT_Journal. Not a member? Join today at https://launch.amsat.org/

    [ANS thanks AMSAT for the above information]


    Apogee View - January/February 2021

    These past two months have certainly been an emotional rollercoaster, with
    the launch and then silence from RadFxSat-2 (Fox-1E). Getting a front row
    seat at Virgin Orbit’s virtual launch event was a thrilling event f
    or me.
    I only wish they would have allowed us to share that opportunity with all
    of you. The excitement of another AMSAT satellite in space, however, faded quickly, with each passing orbit and no beacon reception report. As disheartening as this was, I was never more proud of our Engineering and Operations teams, working together in an attempt to command RadFxSat-2.

    While all this was going on, Brad Schumacher, W5SAT, reported hearing his
    own CW signal through RadFxSat-2’s transponder, on January 27th. O
    Engineering and Operations team were able to duplicate Brad’s effor
    ts and
    confirm that RadFxSat-2’s transponder was partially functioning, al
    at an extremely reduced power. Having satisfied the requirements for OSCAR designation, RadFxSat-2 (Fox-1E) was designated AMSAT-OSCAR 109 (AO-109).

    Our attempts to determine what is keeping AO-109 from functioning properly continues to this day. Receiving the beacon is still our top priority, as
    one frame of telemetry will give us a much needed look on the health of
    each subsystem. We know the signal is going to be weak and will require a
    big antenna system to hear it. Any assistance you can provide would be
    greatly appreciated; however, we continue to ask that amateur satellite operators not attempt to use the transponder until further notice, as this
    may draw available power away from the beacon.

    I want to personally thank all of our volunteers on the engineering and operations team for all of their hard work, our friends at Vanderbilt University’s Institute for Space and Defense Electronics for sharin
    g this
    dream with us, and each of you for your patience and understanding as we
    seek to overcome this challenge.

    Will There Be a Fox-2?

    AO-109 (RadFxSat-2/Fox-1E) marks the last of the planned Fox-1 series of CubeSats. At the same time, while SO-50 continues to operate in LEO, AMSAT finds itself without a continuously operational FM-mode satellite in
    space. Since AO-51, the so-called “EasySats,” have been th
    e most popular
    amateur satellites. AO-85, AO-91, and AO-92 have proven that offering an easy-to-use and easily accessible satellite, requiring only a handheld transceiver and a small, handheld directional beam, is essential both for
    those just getting started on amateur satellites and seasoned operators.
    In addition, these EasySats play a critical role in introducing amateur satellite communication and extending our educational outreach.

    It is imperative that we find a way to provide a sustained presence of FM crossband repeaters in low Earth orbit, without taking away from our
    current plans to return to high Earth orbits, and I will be making such a proposal to our Board of Directors in the coming months.

    If the challenges and shortened lives of AMSAT’s Fox-1 series of sa
    has taught us anything, it is that trying to shoehorn all of the required subsystems and experiments into a spacecraft no bigger than a softball is
    no easy feat. We must simplify our designs yet add robustness and
    redundancy. By chance, AO-7 rose from the dead when its batteries
    shorted. We need this capability designed into our electrical power
    system, so, when the batteries fail, the radios are still powered by the
    solar panels when the satellite is not in eclipse. In addition, we need to ensure no single point of failure jeopardizes our mission. Including redundancy and failsafes in our design will provide added assurance.

    Another challenge for us is that AMSAT does not have another FM crossband repeater in its inventory to use for a future satellite, because the
    necessary components have been discontinued. AMSAT is working on procuring
    a new, open design for not only our needs but to share with the rest of the world. More information on our plans to accomplish this will follow in a
    few months.

    Running more than one satellite project at the same time will be
    challenging. With limited volunteer and financial resources, we must make smart decisions. GOLF-TEE and GOLF-1 are still our primary projects, as we continue our march upward to HEO, so we must find ways to recruit
    additional volunteer engineers, use commercial, off-the-shelf components, outsource construction, and/or a combination thereof.

    We have a great opportunity before us, but it is only possible with your support. Your continued membership in AMSAT, purchases in the AMSAT Store,
    and generous donations, combined with the cost-cutting measures I have
    recently enacted will help us get there. Please join us in our journey
    Onward and Upward.

    [ANS thanks Robert Bankston, KE4AL, AMSAT President, for the above


    AMSAT Vice President - Engineering Jerry Buxton, N0JY, Presents at JAMSAT Symposium

    AMSAT Vice President Jerry Buxton, N0JY, gave a presentation detailing some
    of the challenges and work being done to return to HEO at the 2021 JAMSAT Symposium on March 20th.

    A replay of the presentation can be viewed at

    [ANS thanks Jerry Buxton, N0JY, AMSAT Vice President - Engineering for the above information]

    Need new satellite antennas? Purchase Arrows, Alaskan Arrows,
    and M2 LEO-Packs from the AMSAT Store. When you purchase through
    AMSAT, a portion of the proceeds goes towards
    Keeping Amateur Radio in Space.

    ARISS Columbus Radio System Once Again Operational!

    The ARISS Columbus Radio is back on-the-air! This, after it was rendered non-operational following a January 27 EVA (spacewalk) which was conducted
    to install a cable for the Bartolomeo commercial platform. During the
    January 27 spacewalk, the Bartolomeo HMU-601 cable, described in the March
    10 ARISS Press conference (
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?vm4h4rBE9k&t"14s), was installed in
    series with the ARISS antenna cable (HMU-895).

    As part of a spacewalk conducted yesterday, March 13, Astronaut Michael
    Hopkins successfully completed the installation of three PAPOS connectors
    for the new Bartolomeo platform on the Columbus Module. After this task, Hopkins started the ARISS task. He moved to the opposite side of Columbus, where he removed the HMU-601 cable from the APCU J02 connector and
    reinstalled the ARISS antenna cable (HMU-895) connector back into the APCU
    J02 connector. This returned the ARISS system back to its pre-January 27 configuration.

    At around 1200 UTC today, the astronauts turned on the ARISS radio system
    in Columbus. It was placed in PM3, or Packet Mode. PM3 employs a downlink frequency of 145.825 MHz. Shortly after radio startup, APRS signals were
    heard in California, Utah, and Idaho as the ISS passed along the USA West Coast. ARISS Team member, Christy Hunter, KB6LTY, confirmed she digipeated through the ARISS radio system, NA1SS, during this pass. With confirmation from additional stations in South America and the Middle East, the ARISS
    team has declared the radio system again operational.

    On behalf of the ARISS International Team, our heartfelt thanks to all that helped ARISS work through the cable anomaly investigation, troubleshooting
    and ultimate repair. Special shout-outs go to the ISS crew, the operations
    and engineering teams at NASA, ESA and Airbus, and ARISS-Russia leader
    Sergey Samburov, RV3DR, whose quick actions allowed ARISS to maintain our school contact operations via the ARISS Service Module radio system. Our deepest appreciation also goes out to the ARISS International hardware and operations teams that worked so diligently to analyze, troubleshoot,
    develop operations procedures, move school contact operations, and inform
    the team and the public.

    The ARISS team would also like to congratulate the ESA/Airbus Bartolomeo
    team! With the successful installation of 3 of the PAPOS connectors, as
    part of yesterday’s spacewalk, Bartolomeo is now operational!

    Yesterday was a great day for all!

    Ad Astra!

    [ANS thanks Frank Bauer, KA3HDO, ARISS International Chair and ARISS-USA Executive Director, for the above information]


    Houston AMSAT Net #1400 and 28 Years

    It has been some 28 years since I first became involved with the Houston
    AMSAT Net. Andy, W5ACM, (then WA5ZIB), Marty, WV5Y, (then WD5DZC) and I
    were staples on the net. Ed, N5EM, was the host back then. Ed backed off
    and Andy took over. Andy and Marty were doing the net many years prior to
    my joining. I started numbering the nets in 1993. If you missed this
    special net, you can stream it from my website http://www.amsatnet.com
    click on Our Audio and select Net #1400. You can also listen as a podcast
    at the iTunes store by searching for KK5DO or AMSAT. Andy has been under
    the weather and not able to join us for this net.

    We have had fun over the years and we have done many different things. I
    did a little history from the beginning until today. If you have a chance
    take a listen.

    [ANS thanks Bruce Paige, KK5DO, AMSAT Director, for the above information]


    Soyuz Launch Carrying Several Amateur Radio Payloads Delayed

    A Soyuz rocket carrying several amateur payloads was scrubbed from its
    planned launch at 06:07 UTC on March 20, 2021. The launch is now planned
    for 06:07 UTC on March 22, 2021. This launch carries several amateur radio payloads. Details below are compiled from AMSAT-BB posts over the past
    several days.


    On 03/22/2021 between 11:55 and 11:58 UTC, three radio amateur pocketqubes
    will be deployed from the mothership UNISAT-7: DIY-1, SMOG-1 and STECCO.


    Frequency: 437.125 MHz USB/CW
    Power: 25/50/100 mW.
    Telemetry: RTTY 100BD 7N2, 15 ppm CW.
    ROBOT CW autotransponder, (like RS-5 / RS-7 / RS10-11 soviet satellites) Antenna: dipole

    At the time of deployment DIY will be in low power until verifying the
    status of the battery and will be sending only telemetry in an RTTY
    sentence. It is recommended to receive it with the FLDIGI-HAB program. Once
    the operation and battery charge are verified, the ROBOT will be activated
    and we hope it will be the delight of the CW enthusiasts. Much more info
    once in orbit. I appreciate the reception reports.

    (Gustavo Carpignano, LW2DTZ)


    Editor's Note: BCCSAT-1 has not been coordinated by the IARU.

    BCCSAT-1 is an educational multi-spectral Cubesat 1U developed by the cooperation between Bangkok Christian College and the King’s Mongku
    university of technology north Bangkok. http://bccsat.bcc.ac.th/

    Schedule When our cubesat is completely finished it will be launched into
    space in March 22,2021 06.07 AM UTC at Russia with the Soyuz-2.1 rocket by UNISAT-7 GAUSS SRL to the low earth orbit at 575 km. http://en.roscosmos.ru/21973/ and https://www.roscosmos.ru/30285/

    Downlink Frequency
    Beacon 435.635 MHz CW https://www.youtube.com/watch?vpSTEf3PUI
    Slow Scan Digital Video SSDV Data 435.635 MHz AFSK 1.2 kbps
    Telemetry Data 435.635 MHz GMSK 9.6 kbps

    After launch into space if AMSAT member receives the CW signal of BCCSAT-1 satellite. please send information to our team directly an email to: bccsat1@gmail.com

    BCCSAT-1 is a technology demonstration satellite in Thailand. High school students in Bangkok Cristian College in collaboration with King Mongkut
    University of Technology (KMUTNB) and the Radio Amateur Society of Thailand (RAST) https://www.youtube.com/watch?vcg5q7ZBw0 are building the

    The project aims to build capacity on systems engineering, space education,
    and radio communication technology to students. During the project,
    students will learn about communication technology through amateur radio activities. It also encourages other interested people to receive the
    satellite signal.

    The main missions of BCCSAT-1 include: (1) testing in-house developed
    satellite transceiver and antenna in orbit (2) experiment of Slow-Scan
    Digital Video (SSDV) transmission from the satellite (3) take pictures of
    Earth by cameras onboard satellite

    BCCSAT-1 communication subsystem is an in-house developed transceiver and antennas. It has the capability to transmit GMSK modulation signal at 9.6
    kbps, FSK for SSDV at 1.2 kbps and receive AFSK signal at 1.2 kbps. The transceiver will send its parameter such as RSSI and temperature to the
    ground station.

    BCCSAT-1 will carry four cameras onboard the satellite and aim to capture images of the Earth in different wavelengths: red, green, blue, NIR, and
    Red Edge band.

    We hope to process the images acquired for the Normalized Difference
    Vegetation Index (NDVI) and widely used in Science education. The images
    will be widely distributed among amateur radio community via the experiment
    of SSDV transmission system and GMSK packets downlink. Moreover, BCCSAT-1
    will be able to transmit pre-stored images chosen by high school students.

    BCCSAT-1 will provide the multi spectral images by having the total of 5 cameras on board; Red, Green, Blue, NIR, and Red Edge bands. The images we
    get from these cameras will be used to process for the Normalized
    difference vegetation index (NDVI), that will significantly provides huge advantage on analyzing the terrain of the country.

    (Tanan Rangseeprom, HS1JAN)


    In July 2020 AMSAT Italy and the School of Aerospace Engineering (SIA) of
    the University "La Sapienza" in Rome, represented respectively by Dr.
    Emanuele D'Andria and Dr. Paolo Teofilatto, signed an agreement to
    collaborate in a synergic way to achieve common objectives including the development of satellites and the study of related disciplines in the space field.

    And it is within this agreement that was born the collaboration for the development of the STECCO satellite, acronym for Space Travelling Egg-Controlled Catadioptric Object. The satellite aims to test an
    innovative attitude control device and at the same time to implement an
    amateur radio digipeater. The repeater will be always active simultaneously with the other functions of the satellite. STECCO will operate both in
    uplink and downlink at the frequency of 435.800 Mhz, 9600 baud FSK
    modulation, G3RUH coding, AX.25 protocol. Beacon and telemetry info are available on the project web site [1]

    STECCO will be launched together with other satellites on March 22, 2021 at 6:07 am GMT from the Bajkonur cosmodrome, Kazakistan, on a Soyuz-2 rocket,
    in heliosynchronous orbit. Preliminary TLEs calculated on the estimated
    launch parameters are available on the same project web site. [1]

    The amateur radio community is also invited to share the satellite
    telemetry sending the data to the AMSAT Italia secretariat [segreteria] at

    IARU coordination info are available at http://www.amsatuk.me.uk/iaru/formal_detail.php?serialnumx2

    https://sites.google.com/uniroma1.it/stecco-sia/radio-amateurs?authuser (Fabrizio IU5GEZ on behalf of AMSAT Italia)

    [ANS thanks the sources listed for the above information]


    Changes to AMSAT TLE Distribution for March 18, 2021

    The following satellite has been added BACK to this week's AMSAT TLE Distribution:

    Delfi-N3xt - NORAD Cat ID 39428.
    This satellite has come back to life after seven years of silence.
    (Remember AO-07 coming back after 21 years of silence?)
    Thanks to AMSAT News Service Bulletin 073 (Mark Johns, K0JM) for this very
    good news.

    The following satellite has decayed from orbit and has been removed from
    this week's AMSAT TLE Distribution:

    Delphini - NORAD Cat ID 44030 (Decayed 3-14-2021 per Space-Track).
    (I am pretty sure it won't come back!)

    [ANS thanks Ray Hoad, WA5QGD, AMSAT Orbital Elements Manager, for the above information]


    AMSAT's GOLF Program is about getting back to higher orbits, and it all
    begins with GOLF-TEE – a technology demonstrator for deployable sol
    panels, propulsion, and attitude control. Come along for the ride. The
    journey will be worth it!



    ARISS News

    The next contacts are probably going to be via the Kenwood TM-D710E radio located in the Service Module. You may or may not notice a difference in signal when compared to the Kenwood TM-710GA that is in the Columbus module

    Goodwood Primary School, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, telebridge
    via NA7V

    The ISS callsign is presently scheduled to be NA1SS
    The downlink frequency is presently scheduled to be 145.800 MHz
    The latest information on the operation mode can be found at https://www.ariss.org/current-status-of-iss-stations.html
    The scheduled astronaut is Shannon Walker KD5DXB (***)
    Contact was successful: Wed 2021-03-17 08:32:31 UTC 33 deg (***)

    Oakwood School, Morgan Hill, CA, Multi-point Telebridge via IK1SLD

    The ISS callsign is presently scheduled to be OR4ISS
    The downlink frequency is presently scheduled to be 145.800 MHz
    The latest information on the operation mode can be found at https://www.ariss.org/current-status-of-iss-stations.html
    The scheduled astronaut is Shannon Walker KD5DXB
    Contact is go for: Mon 2021-03-22 18:27:49 UTC 66 deg

    The School of Information Technology & Mathematical Sciences, Southern Hemisphere Space Studies Program 2021, Mawson Lakes, SA, Australia,
    telebridge via NA7V

    The ISS callsign is presently scheduled to be NA1SS
    The downlink frequency is presently scheduled to be 145.800 MHz
    The latest information on the operation mode can be found at https://www.ariss.org/current-status-of-iss-stations.html
    The scheduled astronaut is Shannon Walker KD5DXB
    Contact is go for: Wed 2021-03-24 07:51:16 UTC 45 deg

    The latest information on the operation mode can be found at https://www.ariss.org/current-status-of-iss-stations.html

    The latest list of frequencies in use can be found at https://www.ariss.org/contact-the-iss.html

    [ANS thanks Charlie Sufana, AJ9N, one of the ARISS operation team mentors,
    for the above information]


    Want to fly the colors on your own grid expedition?
    Get your AMSAT car flag and other neat stuff
    from our Zazzle store!
    25% of the purchase price of each product goes
    towards Keeping Amateur Radio in Space


    Upcoming Satellite Operations

    ****Watch Twitter, there are lots pop-up roves happening lately, and I
    can’t keep this page updated with all of them.****

    EL58: WL7T: EL58 happening April 1 … more to come. And then thinkin
    g Maine
    for the first weekend in April. Taking requests …

    EA5GX: Hi guys in 22/3/21 I will be in the RS44 7:41 in the morning pass
    and in afternoon 13:22 UTC around 345.645 from IM99 to Anyone want try qso.
    he will also be: Hi guys in 22/3/21 I will be in the RS44 7:41 in the
    morning pass and in afternoon 13:22 UTC around 345.645 from 4 grid IM99,
    JN00, JM09, IN90

    Major Roves:
    CM93 Possibility: N6DNM Very long shot, but might want to put it on your calendar for May 15th, if you can figure out where it is and for #SOTA
    folks, that would be W6/SC-336, Santa Rosa Island, activated only once

    Please submit any additions or corrections to Ke0pbr (at) gmail.com

    [ANS thanks Paul Overn, KE0PBR, AMSAT rover page manager, for the above information]


    Hamfests, Conventions, Maker Faires, and Other Events

    AMSAT Ambassador and ARRL registered instructor Clint Bradford, K6LCS, is certainly keeping busy!

    He reports these upcoming satellite presentation dates …

    04/01 - Orem, Utah
    06/15 - East Massachusetts

    … and more being scheduled.

    Think a 90-minute lively, informative, and fun “How to Work the Eas
    Satellites” Zoom presentation would be appropriate for your conven
    tion or
    club? Always includes are overviews of the ARRL, AMSAT, and ARISS …
    pre-presentation questions are solicited and welcome.

    Send Clint an email or call!

    Clint Bradford K6LCS
    909-999-SATS (7287)

    [ANS thanks Clint Bradford, K6LCS, AMSAT Ambassador, and Paul Overn,
    KE0PBR, AMSAT Events Page Manager, for the above information]


    Satellite Shorts From All Over

    + AMSAT congratulates long-time satellite operator John Papay, K8YSE, on 60 years of being a licensed radio amateur. He has been operating as K8YSE/60
    to celebrate the milestone. (Via Bob Liddy, K8BL)

    + Some hams in Europe were able to receive Falcon 9 launch telemetry at
    2232.5 MHz with a HackRF and 1.2m dish and then demodulate it with GNU
    Radio. Impressive work, and somewhat surprising that the data isn’t encrypted. They were able to decode live video streams from the upper
    stage’s engineering cameras, including one of free-floating fuel in
    the LOX
    tank, which SpaceX livestream editors tend to switch away from. (ANS thanks
    The Orbital Index and reddit for the above information)

    + A published paper by a pair of actual physicists at Cornell University, handily entitled “Warp drive basics,” theorizes about warp
    drives (as in
    Star Trek). Their calculations require hypothetical negative mass-energy,
    but at least the ship as a whole can have positive finite mass.
    Unfortunately, the necessary relativistic bubble would isolate the ship
    from the outside world, so the ship cannot create or control its own warp bubble—this would have to be done externally. Meanwhile, a second p
    aper by
    another Cornell physicist, proposes a warp drive solution that avoids the negative-mass problem, but currently still requires an “astronomica
    l amount
    of energy.” Who says that science fiction can't be a serious cataly
    st for
    actual research? (ANS thanks The Orbital Index for the above information)

    + A SpaceX bid on a NASA CubeSat launch appeared to offer a vehicle other
    than Falcon 9 or Falcon Heavy (Perhaps Starship). More details at https://spacenews.com/spacex-bid-on-launch-of-nasa-cubesat-mission/

    + The rtl-sdr.com blog features an article on receiving the SMOG-P and
    ATL-1 nanosatellites with an rtl-sdr. Check it out at https://www.rtl-sdr.com/receiving-smog-p-and-atl-1-nano-satellites-with-an- rtl-sdr/

    + Several new products are available on the AMSAT Zazzle store, including a
    set of coasters, a watch, a t-shirt featuring the AMSAT round logo, and
    more. Check out the new items! 25% of the purchase price goes towards
    Keeping Amateur Radio in Space. https://www.zazzle.com/amsat_gear

    + All issues of The AMSAT Journal dating back to 2014 are now available to AMSAT members on AMSAT’s new membership portal. The 1969-2013 archi
    ve will
    be added at a later date. All editions of AMSAT’s Symposium Proceed
    ings are
    also available for members. If you’re a current AMSAT member, get l
    ogged on
    today. If you are not yet a member, consider joining today at https://launch.amsat.org/

    + The 2020 edition of AMSAT’s Getting Started with Amateur Satellit
    es is
    now available on the AMSAT store. A perennial favorite, Getting Started is updated every year with the latest amateur satellite information, and is
    the premier primer of satellite operation. The book is presented in
    DRM-free PDF format, in full color, and covers all aspects of making your
    first contacts on a ham radio satellite. The digital download is available
    for $15 at https://tinyurl.com/2020GettingStarted. The print edition is $30 plus shipping and is available at https://tinyurl.com/GS2020Print


    In addition to regular membership, AMSAT offers membership in the
    President’s Club. Members of the President’s Club, as susta
    ining donors to
    AMSAT Project Funds, will be eligible to receive additional benefits. President’s Club donations may be made at https://www.amsat.org/join-the-amsat-presidents-club/

    Primary and secondary school students are eligible for membership at
    one-half the standard yearly rate. Post-secondary school students enrolled
    in at least half time status shall be eligible for the student rate for a maximum of 6 post-secondary years in this status.

    Join AMSAT today at https://launch.amsat.org/

    73 and remember to help Keep Amateur Radio in Space,

    This week’s ANS Editor,

    Paul Stoetzer, N8HM
    n8hm at amsat dot org

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