• [KB6NU] 2022 No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide: Operatin

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    2022 No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide: Operating Practices

    Posted: 08 Feb 2022 08:48 PM PST https://www.kb6nu.com/2022-no-nonsense-technician-class-license-study-guide-operating-practices/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email

    FM Operation
    Most Technicians purchase a VHF/UHF FM transceiver as their first amateur radio. This type of radio allows them to use repeaters and participate in public-service events.

    T1F09 [97.3(a)(40)]

    What type of amateur station simultaneously retransmits the signal of
    another amateur station on a different channel or channels?

    A. Beacon station

    B. Earth station

    C. Repeater station

    D. Message forwarding station

    T1D07 [97.113(d)]

    What types of amateur stations can automatically retransmit the signals of other amateur stations?

    A. Auxiliary, beacon, or Earth stations

    B. Earth, repeater, or space stations

    C. Beacon, repeater, or space stations

    D. Repeater, auxiliary, or space stations
    To increase range of a repeater system, some repeater operators link their repeaters with other repeaters. When linked in this way, a signal received
    by one repeater is retransmitted by all the other repeaters in the network. This can give the repeater network extremely wide coverage.


    Which of the following describes a linked repeater network?

    A. A network of repeaters in which signals received by one repeater are transmitted by all the repeaters in the network

    B. A single repeater with more than one receiver

    C. Multiple repeaters with the same control operator

    D. A system of repeaters linked by APRS

    To use repeaters, you need to know how to set up your radio. Repeaters
    receive on one frequency and transmit on another. You program your radio so that it receives on the repeater’s transmit frequency and transmits on the repeater’s receive frequency. The difference between the transmit frequency and receive frequency is called the repeater frequency offset. The
    frequency offset for 2-meter repeaters is most often 600 kHz, while the
    most common repeater frequency offset in the 70-cm band is 5 MHz.


    What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 2 meter band?

    A. Plus or minus 5 MHz

    B. Plus or minus 600 kHz

    C. Plus or minus 500 kHz

    D. Plus or minus 1 MHz


    What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 70 cm band?

    A. Plus or minus 5 MHz

    B. Plus or minus 600 kHz

    C. Plus or minus 500 kHz

    D. Plus or minus 1 MHz

    Because repeaters often operate in environments where there is a lot of interference, they are programmed not to repeat a signal unless the signal
    has a sub- audible tone of a specific frequency. These tones are sometimes called PL (short for “private line”) tones. PL is a Motorola trademark. The generic term for these tones is CTCSS (short for “continuous tone-coded squelch system”). If your radio has not been programmed to transmit the proper sub-audible tone when you transmit, the repeater will not repeat
    your transmission.


    What term describes the use of a sub-audible tone transmitted along with
    normal voice audio to open the squelch of a receiver?

    A. Carrier squelch

    B. Tone burst

    C. DTMF

    D. CTCSS
    A frequent problem is being able to hear a repeater, but not being able to access it. There could be several reasons for this.


    Which of the following could be the reason you are unable to access a
    repeater whose output you can hear?

    A. Improper transceiver offset

    B. You are using the wrong CTCSS tone

    C. You are using the wrong DCS code

    D. All these choices are correct
    A Digital Code Squelch, or DCS, tone is similar to a CTCSS tone in that it
    is sub-audible and opens the squelch of a repeater when a station is trying
    to access it. They are, however, not very common.
    If a station does not have a good signal into a repeater, you may want to listen for it on the repeater input frequency. One way to listen to the repeater input frequency would be to use the reverse function of your
    VHF/UHF transceiver, if it has this feature. When enabled, the reverse
    function will cause your transceiver to transmit on the repeater output frequency and receive on the input frequency.


    How is a VHF/UHF transceiver’s “reverse” function used?

    A. To reduce power output

    B. To increase power output

    C. To listen on a repeater’s input frequency

    D. To listen on a repeater’s output frequency
    Another problem you may encounter when operating FM is over-deviation. This
    can happen if you speak too loudly into the microphone. This will cause
    your signal to deviate too much, and that can cause distortion.


    What would cause your FM transmission audio to be distorted on voice peaks?

    A. Your repeater offset is inverted

    B. You need to talk louder

    C. You are talking too loudly

    D. Your transmit power is too high

    In addition to knowing how to set the controls of your radio, you need to
    know the protocol for making contacts. When using a repeater, the protocol
    is very simple. The reason for this is that signals are normally very
    strong and saying your call sign is all that is required to alert other stations that you are listening to the repeater and available for contacts.


    What is an appropriate way to call another station on a repeater if you
    know the other stations call sign?

    A. Say break, break, then say the stations call sign

    B. Say the stations call sign, then identify with your call sign

    C. Say CQ three times, then the other stations call sign

    D. Wait for the station to call CQ, then answer


    Which of the following indicates that a station is listening on a repeater
    and looking for a contact?

    A. “CQ CQ” followed by the station’s call sign

    B. The station’s call sign followed by the word “monitoring”

    C. The repeater call sign followed by the station’s call sign

    D. “QSY” followed by your call sign
    So, for example, if I want to talk to Ralph, AA8RK, on our local repeater,
    I would say, “AA8RK, KB6NU.” If Ralph was listening—and was available to talk—he would then say, “KB6NU, AA8RK,” and we would begin our contact. If
    I wasn’t looking for anyone in particular, I would say, “KB6NU monitoring”
    or “KB6NU listening.”

    Repeater operation is called duplex operation because you’re transmitting
    and receiving on two different frequencies. When two stations are operating
    on the same frequency, without the aid of a repeater, its called simplex operation.


    What term describes an amateur station that is transmitting and receiving
    on the same frequency?

    A. Full duplex

    B. Diplex

    C. Simplex

    D. Multiplex


    Why are simplex channels designated in the VHF/UHF band plans?

    A. So stations within range of each other can communicate without tying up
    a repeater

    B. For contest operation

    C. For working DX only

    D. So stations with simple transmitters can access the repeater without automated offset
    To help amateurs operating simplex find one another, frequencies on each
    band have been set aside as “national calling frequencies.” 146.52 MHz is the national calling frequency for FM simplex operation in the 2 m band.


    What is the national calling frequency for FM simplex operations in the 2
    meter band?

    A. 146.520 MHz

    B. 145.000 MHz

    C. 432.100 MHz

    D. 446.000 MHz
    446.000 MHz is the national calling frequency for the 70 cm band.

    HF Operation
    On the HF bands, signals can be easy to copy or difficult to copy. Because
    this is the case, the protocol for making contacts is more complex than the repeater protocol. On HF, when you want to contact another station, you
    “call CQ.” That is to say, you would say something like, “CQ CQ CQ. This is
    KB6NU.” This means that you are open to a call from any station.


    What is the meaning of the procedural signal “CQ”?

    A. Call on the quarter hour

    B. Test transmission, no reply expected

    C. Only the called station should transmit

    D. Calling any station
    You don’t want to just start calling CQ willy-nilly, though. Listen first,
    to make sure that you don’t interfere with any other amateur stations.


    What should you do before calling CQ?

    A. Listen first to be sure that no one else is using the frequency

    B. Ask if the frequency is in use

    C. Make sure you are authorized to use that frequency

    D. All these choices are correct
    Knowing how to reply to a CQ is also important. Knowing the commonly
    accepted protocol will make it easier to make contacts.


    How should you respond to a station calling CQ?

    A. Transmit CQ followed by the other station’s call sign

    B. Transmit your call sign followed by the other station’s call sign

    C. Transmit the other station’s call sign followed by your call sign

    D. Transmit a signal report followed by your call sign
    For example, if my friend Ralph, AA8RK, heard my call and wanted to talk to
    me, he would reply, “KB6NU this is AA8RK. Over.” Then, I would return the call, and our contact would begin. If signal conditions are poor, you may
    want to repeat your call sign and state your call sign in a phonetic

    It’s important to always identify your station, even when only performing tests.


    Which of the following is required when making on-the-air test

    A. Identify the transmitting station

    B. Conduct tests only between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. local time

    C. Notify the FCC of the transmissions

    D. All these choices are correct

    As a Technician, you will be able to operate Morse Code on certain portions
    of the 80 m, 40 m, 15 m, and 10 m bands. To shorten the number of
    characters sent during a CW contact, amateurs often use three-letter combinations called Q-signals. Q signals are three-letter combinations, beginning with the letter “Q,” that stand for commonly-used phrases. You need to know the meaning of two of these Q signals: QRM and QSY.


    Which Q signal indicates that you are receiving interference from other stations?

    A. QRM

    B. QRN

    C. QTH

    D. QSB


    Which Q signal indicates that you are changing frequency?

    A. QRU

    B. QSY

    C. QSL

    D. QRZ

    FCC rules specify broadly where amateur radio operators have operating privileges, but they are not very detailed. Band plans take this one step further, suggesting where amateurs should use certain modes.


    What is a band plan, beyond the privileges established by the FCC?

    A. A voluntary guideline for using different modes or activities within an amateur band

    B. A list of operating schedules

    C. A list of available net frequencies

    D. A plan devised by a club to indicate frequency band use

    While not always adhered to, another basic tenet of amateur radio is to
    operate courteously and avoid interfering with other stations.


    Which of the following applies when two stations transmitting on the same frequency interfere with each other?

    A. The stations should negotiate continued use of the frequency

    B. Both stations should choose another frequency to avoid conflict

    C. Interference is inevitable, so no action is required

    D. Use subaudible tones so both stations can share the frequency

    Public service and emergency communications
    One of the reasons amateur radio exists at all is that ham radio operators
    are uniquely set up to provide emergency and public-service communications.
    As a result, many hams consider it an obligation to be prepared to help out when called upon to do so. This includes having the proper equipment and knowing the proper operating procedures. There are two organizations that provide emergency communications: the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES) and the Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES).


    What is the Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES)?

    A. A group of licensed amateurs who have voluntarily registered their qualifications and equipment for communications duty in the public service

    B. A group of licensed amateurs who are members of the military and who voluntarily agreed to provide message handling services in the case of an emergency

    C. A training program that provides licensing courses for those interested
    in obtaining an amateur license to use during emergencies

    D. A training program that certifies amateur operators for membership in
    the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service

    T1A10 [97.3(a)(38), 97.407]

    What is the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES)?

    A. A radio service using amateur frequencies for emergency management or
    civil defense communications

    B. A radio service using amateur stations for emergency management or civil defense communications

    C. An emergency service using amateur operators certified by a civil
    defense organization as being enrolled in that organization

    D. All these choices are correct


    What is RACES?

    A. An emergency organization combining amateur radio and citizens band operators and frequencies

    B. An international radio experimentation society

    C. A radio contest held in a short period, sometimes called a “sprint”

    D. An FCC part 97 amateur radio service for civil defense communications
    during national emergencies
    When an emergency occurs, it’s common for amateur radio operators to form a network or “net” to facilitate emergency communications. The net is led by the net control station, or NCS, whose job includes calling the net to
    order and directing communications between stations checking in. Stations
    other than the net control station are said to “check in” to the net.


    Which of the following are typical duties of a Net Control Station?

    A. Choose the regular net meeting time and frequency

    B. Ensure that all stations checking into the net are properly licensed for operation on the net frequency

    C. Call the net to order and direct communications between stations
    checking in

    D. All these choices are correct
    When you check into a net, you must take your lead from the net control station, and transmit only when directed to by the net control station,
    unless you are reporting an emergency.


    Which of the following is standard practice when you participate in a net?

    A. When first responding to the net control station, transmit your call
    sign, name, and address as in the FCC database

    B. Record the time of each of your transmissions

    C. Unless you are reporting an emergency, transmit only when directed by
    the net control station

    D. All these choices are correct

    One of the functions of an emergency communications net is to pass messages between stations that have checked into the net. The term for messages
    passed between stations in a net is “traffic,” and the process of passing messages to and from amateur radio stations is called handling traffic.
    When handling traffic, you should try to pass messages exactly as received.
    One way to do this is to spell words using a standard phonetic alphabet.


    What does the term “traffic” refer to in net operation?

    A. Messages exchanged by net stations

    B. The number of stations checking in and out of a net|

    C. Operation by mobile or portable stations

    D. Requests to activate the net by a served agency


    Which of the following is a characteristic of good traffic handling?

    A. Passing messages exactly as received

    B. Making decisions as to whether messages are worthy of relay or delivery

    C. Ensuring that any newsworthy messages are relayed to the news media

    D. All these choices are correct


    What technique is used to ensure that voice messages containing unusual
    words are received correctly?

    A. Send the words by voice and Morse code

    B. Speak very loudly into the microphone

    C. Spell the words using a standard phonetic alphabet

    D. All these choices are correct

    Formal traffic messages consists of four parts: preamble, address, text, signature. Part of the preamble is the check. The address is the name and address of the intended recipient, the text is the message itself, and the signature is the part of the message that identifies the originator of the message.


    What information is contained in the preamble of a formal traffic message?

    A. The email address of the originating station

    B. The address of the intended recipient

    C. The telephone number of the addressee

    D. Information needed to track the message


    What is meant by “check” in a radiogram header?

    A. The number of words or word equivalents in the text portion of the

    B. The call sign of the originating station

    C. A list of stations that have relayed the message

    D. A box on the message form that indicates that the message was received and/or relayed

    Even in emergencies, you must follow FCC rules when operating an amateur
    radio station. The normal rules are, however, relaxed a little during true emergencies.

    T2C01 [97.103(a)]

    When do FCC rules NOT apply to the operation of an amateur station?

    A. When operating a RACES station

    B. When operating under special FEMA rules

    C. When operating under special ARES rules

    D. FCC rules always apply


    Are amateur station control operators ever permitted to operate outside the frequency privileges of their license class?

    A. No

    B. Yes, but only when part of a FEMA emergency plan

    C. Yes, but only when part of a RACES emergency plan

    D. Yes, but only in situations involving the immediate safety of human life
    or protection of property
    Its kind of a Catch-22. FCC rules always apply to the operation of an
    amateur radio station, but the rules say that you can do almost anything in
    a true emergency.

    Amateur satellite operation
    Making contacts via amateur radio satellites and other space stations is
    one of the coolest things a ham can do. As a Technician Class licensee, you will have the privileges to do this.

    T1B02 [97.301, 97.207(c)]

    Which amateurs may contact the International Space Station (ISS) on VHF

    A. Any amateur holding a General class or higher license

    B. Any amateur holding a Technician class or higher license

    C. Any amateur holding a General class or higher license who has applied
    for and received approval from NASA

    D. Any amateur holding a Technician class or higher license who has applied
    for and received approval from NASA
    Amateur satellites are basically repeaters in space. As such they have an uplink frequency, which is the frequency on which you transmit and the satellite receives, and a downlink frequency, on which the satellite
    transmits and you receive. Often, the uplink frequency and downlink
    frequency are in different amateur bands.


    What is meant by the statement that a satellite is operating in U/V mode?

    A. The satellite uplink is in the 15 meter band and the downlink is in the
    10 meter band

    B. The satellite uplink is in the 70 centimeter band and the downlink is in
    the 2 meter band

    C. The satellite operates using ultraviolet frequencies

    D. The satellite frequencies are usually variable
    The 70 cm band is in the UHF portion of the spectrum, hence the “U” in U/V, while the 2 meter band is in the VHF portion of the spectrum, hence the “V” in U/V.
    While most satellites are FM satellites, some operate using other modes.


    What mode of transmission is commonly used by amateur radio satellites?

    A. SSB

    B. FM

    C. CW/data

    D. All these choices are correct
    When making contacts via an amateur satellite only use as much power as is needed to make the contact. The reason for this is that when a satellite receives a very strong signal, its automatic gain control (AGC) sets the receive threshold to the level of that signal and weaker signals wont be relayed. When everyone uses a reasonable power level, the AGC doesnt kick
    in, and the satellite can relay many signals simultaneously.


    What is the impact of using excessive effective radiated power on a
    satellite uplink?

    A. Possibility of commanding the satellite to an improper mode

    B. Blocking access by other users

    C. Overloading the satellite batteries

    D. Possibility of rebooting the satellite control computer


    Which of the following is a way to determine whether your satellite uplink power is neither too low nor too high?

    A. Check your signal strength report in the telemetry data

    B. Listen for distortion on your downlink signal

    C. Your signal strength on the downlink should be about the same as the

    D. All these choices are correct

    Most amateur satellites are in a low Earth orbit, or LEO. Satellites in a
    low Earth orbit have an altitude between 99 miles and 1,200 miles. This corresponds to an orbital period of about 88 minutes to about about 127 minutes. Satellites in LEO provides high bandwidth and low communication
    time lag, but they can only be used for a short time when they pass


    What is a LEO satellite?

    A. A sun synchronous satellite

    B. A highly elliptical orbit satellite

    C. A satellite in low energy operation mode

    D. A satellite in low earth orbit

    Amateur satellites are often equipped with beacons. Beacons often send telemetry signals that inform users about the status of the satellite.


    What is a satellite beacon?

    A. The primary transmit antenna on the satellite

    B. An indicator light that shows where to point your antenna

    C. A reflective surface on the satellite

    D. A transmission from a satellite that contains status information


    What telemetry information is typically transmitted by satellite beacons?

    A. The signal strength of received signals

    B. Time of day accurate to plus or minus 1/10 second

    C. Health and status of the satellite

    D. All these choices are correct


    Who may receive telemetry from a space station?

    A. Anyone

    B. A licensed radio amateur with a transmitter equipped for interrogating
    the satellite

    C. A licensed radio amateur who has been certified by the protocol developer

    D. A licensed radio amateur who has registered for an access code from AMSAT

    Computers make it easy to figure out when you can communicate via an
    amateur satellite. Computer programs are available that not only tell you
    when a satellite is passing overhead, but also control an antenna rotor and
    set the frequency of your transceiver.


    Which of the following are provided by satellite tracking programs?

    A. Maps showing the real-time position of the satellite track over Earth

    B. The time, azimuth, and elevation of the start, maximum altitude, and end
    of a pass

    C. The apparent frequency of the satellite transmission, including effects
    of Doppler shift

    D. All these choices are correct


    Which of the following are inputs to a satellite tracking program?

    A. The satellite transmitted power

    B. The Keplerian elements

    C. The last observed time of zero Doppler shift

    D. All these choices are correct

    Two issues that you must deal with when communicating via satellites are Doppler shift and spin fading.


    What is Doppler shift in reference to satellite communications?

    A. A change in the satellite orbit

    B. A mode where the satellite receives signals on one band and transmits on another

    C. An observed change in signal frequency caused by relative motion between
    the satellite and Earth station

    D. A special digital communications mode for some satellites


    What causes spin fading of satellite signals?

    A. Circular polarized noise interference radiated from the sun

    B. Rotation of the satellite and its antennas

    C. Doppler shift of the received signal

    D. Interfering signals within the satellite uplink band

    Operating activities
    There are many different ways to have fun with amateur radio. Contesting is
    one of them.


    What operating activity involves contacting as many stations as possible
    during a specified period?

    A. Simulated emergency exercises

    B. Net operations

    C. Public service events

    D. Contesting


    Which of the following is good procedure when contacting another station in
    a contest?

    A. Sign only the last two letters of your call if there are many other
    stations calling

    B. Contact the station twice to be sure that you are in his log

    C. Send only the minimum information needed for proper identification and
    the contest exchange

    D. All these choices are correct
    Sending the minimum amount of information will help you make as many
    contacts as possible.
    Information about a stations location is often part of the contest
    exchange. In the U.S., a stations state or ARRL section is most often sent,
    but in VHF/UHF contests, stations often send each other their grid locators.


    What is a grid locator?

    A. A letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location

    B. A letter-number designator assigned to an azimuth and elevation

    C. An instrument for neutralizing a final amplifier

    D. An instrument for radio direction finding

    One activity that is both fun and practical is radio direction finding. You
    use radio direction finding equipment and skills to participate in hidden transmitter hunts.


    Which of the following methods is used to locate sources of noise
    interference or jamming?

    A. Echolocation

    B. Doppler radar

    C. Radio direction finding

    D. Phase locking


    Which of these items would be useful for a hidden transmitter hunt?

    A. Calibrated SWR meter

    B. A directional antenna

    C. A calibrated noise bridge

    D. All these choices are correct

    If the only radios that you have are VHF or UHF radios, you might want to
    look into EchoLink and the Internet Radio Linking Project (IRLP). Both
    systems provide a way to communicate with amateurs far away with a VHF or
    UHF transceiver. Both use Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP).


    What is the Internet Radio Linking Project (IRLP)?

    A. A technique to connect amateur radio systems, such as repeaters, via the internet using Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

    B. A system for providing access to websites via amateur radio

    C. A system for informing amateurs in real time of the frequency of active
    DX stations

    D. A technique for measuring signal strength of an amateur transmitter via
    the internet


    What is Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)?

    A. A set of rules specifying how to identify your station when linked over
    the internet to another station

    B. A technique employed to “spot” DX stations via the internet

    C. A technique for measuring the modulation quality of a transmitter using remote sites monitored via the internet

    D. A method of delivering voice communications over the internet using
    digital techniques


    What is required before using the EchoLink system?

    A. Complete the required EchoLink training

    B. Purchase a license to use the EchoLink software

    C. Register your call sign and provide proof of license

    D. All these choices are correct
    Stations that connect to EchoLink or IRLP are called nodes. You can access
    a particular node by punching in the node number on a radio’s keypad. Pressing keys on the keypad generates DTMF (dual tone, multi-frequency) signals. DTMF signals are comprised of a pair of tones which are unique for each key.


    How is over the air access to IRLP nodes accomplished?

    A. By obtaining a password that is sent via voice to the node

    B. By using DTMF signals

    C. By entering the proper internet password

    D. By using CTCSS tone codes


    What type of signaling uses pairs of audio tones?

    A. DTMF

    B. CTCSS

    C. GPRS

    D. D-STAR
    Sometimes, nodes are also gateways.


    What is an amateur radio station that connects other amateur stations to
    the internet?

    A. A gateway

    B. A repeater

    C. A digipeater

    D. A beacon

    The post 2022 No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide: Operating Practices appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

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