From KB6NU via rec.radio.amateur.moderat@21:1/5 to All on Sun Feb 6 09:16:24 2022
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    KB6NU's Ham Radio Blog

    QSLs: W0GAS, AE4AN

    Posted: 05 Feb 2022 10:11 AM PST https://www.kb6nu.com/qsls-w0gas-ae4an/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email

    Here are two more QSLs from stations whose call signs spell words. I worked both these stations in last weeks K1USN SST. GAS is an all-time, new one
    for me!

    The post QSLs: W0GAS, AE4AN appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

    2022 No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide: Station equipment

    Posted: 04 Feb 2022 05:26 PM PST https://www.kb6nu.com/2022-no-nonsense-technician-class-license-study-guide-station-equipment/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email

    Receivers, transmitters, transceivers, and transverters
    In the early days of radio, radio amateurs used separate receivers and transmitter units. Nowadays, however, most use radios that combine function both as the transmitter and receiver. These unit are called transceivers.


    What is a transceiver?

    A. A device that combines a receiver and transmitter

    B. A device for matching feed line impedance to 50 ohms

    C. A device for automatically sending and decoding Morse code

    D. A device for converting receiver and transmitter frequencies to another
    Often, HF transceivers are used with devices called transverters that
    convert the signals from their HF transceiver to the VHF, UHF, and even microwave bands. Transverters take the output of an HF transceiver,
    normally set to the 10 m (28 MHz) band and output a VHF, UHF, or microwave signal. Conversely, they receive a VHF, UHF, or microwave signal and output
    a signal in the 10 m band that is demodulated by the HF transceiver.


    What device converts the RF input and output of a transceiver to another

    A. High pass filter

    B. Low-pass filter

    C. Transverter

    D. Phase converter
    Many, if not most, new amateurs buy a handheld transceiver, called an “HT,” as their first transceiver. One disadvantage of using a handheld
    transceiver is that the maximum output power is generally only 5 W, and
    because of this, they have limited range. To get around this limitation,
    you can use an RF amplifier to boost the power.


    What device increases the transmitted output power from a transceiver?

    A. A voltage divider

    B. An RF power amplifier

    C. An impedance network

    D. All these choices are correct


    What is the function of the SSB/CW-FM switch on a VHF power amplifier?

    A. Change the mode of the transmitted signal

    B. Set the amplifier for proper operation in the selected mode

    C. Change the frequency range of the amplifier to operate in the proper
    segment of the band

    D. Reduce the received signal noise
    When talking about a transceiver’s specifications, we still refer to its receiver and transmitter. The two most important receiver specifications
    are sensitivity and selectivity.


    Which term describes the ability of a receiver to detect the presence of a signal?

    A. Linearity

    B. Sensitivity

    C. Selectivity

    D. Total Harmonic Distortion


    Which term describes the ability of a receiver to discriminate between
    multiple signals?

    A. Discrimination ratio

    B. Sensitivity

    C. Selectivity

    D. Harmonic distortion
    To improve the sensitivity of a receiver, you can use an RF preamplifier.
    An RF preamplifier amplifies signals that you want to receive.


    Where is an RF preamplifier installed?

    A. Between the antenna and receiver

    B. At the output of the transmitter power amplifier

    C. Between the transmitter and the antenna tuner

    D. At the output of the receiver audio amplifier
    Many HF transceivers have some version of a superheterodyne receiver. A superheterodyne receiver converts an incoming radio signal to an
    intermediate frequency, or IF. The circuit that does this is the mixer.


    Which of the following is used to convert a signal from one frequency to another?

    A. Phase splitter

    B. Mixer

    C. Inverter

    D. Amplifier
    When transmitting or receiving, we want to generate an RF signal with a specific frequency. To do that, we use an oscillator.


    What is the name of a circuit that generates a signal at a specific

    A. Reactance modulator

    B. Phase modulator

    C. Low-pass filter

    D. Oscillator
    To transmit a voice or data signal, we have to combine an audio frequency signal from the microphone with the RF carrier signal generated by the transmitter. This is done with a circuit called a modulator, and the
    process of combinging speech with an RF carrier signal is called modulation.


    Which of the following describes combining speech with an RF carrier signal?

    A. Impedance matching

    B. Oscillation

    C. Modulation

    D. Low-pass filtering
    Symptoms, causes, and cures of common transmitter and receiver problems
    Since Murphy’s Law—the law that states if anything can go wrong, it will—applies to amateur radio as much as it does to any other pursuit, at some point you will have to deal with problems. These may include overload, distortion, feedback, and radio frequency interference, or RFI.
    Let’s first consider radio frequency interference.


    Which of the following can cause radio frequency interference?

    A. Fundamental overload

    B. Harmonics

    C. Spurious emissions

    D. All these choices are correct
    Any of these could cause interference to a TV set or radio or even computer speakers, and you will want to take steps to find and eliminate that interference. The first thing that you should do if your neighbor complains about interference is to make sure that your station is functioning
    properly by making sure that your transmissions do not cause interference
    to your radios or televisions.


    Which of the following actions should you take if a neighbor tells you that your station’s transmissions are interfering with their radio or TV reception?

    A. Make sure that your station is functioning properly and that it does not cause interference to your own radio or television when it is tuned to the
    same channel

    B. Immediately turn off your transmitter and contact the nearest FCC office
    for assistance

    C. Install a harmonic doubler on the output of your transmitter and tune it until the interference is eliminated

    D. All these choices are correct
    While it’s not very likely that your amateur radio station will interfere with a neighbor’s cable TV service, it can sometimes occur. If you are interfering with a neighbor’s cable TV service, first check the coax connectors.


    What should be the first step to resolve non-fiber optic cable TV
    interference caused by your amateur radio transmission?

    A. Add a low-pass filter to the TV antenna input

    B. Add a high-pass filter to the TV antenna input

    C. Add a preamplifier to the TV antenna input

    D. Be sure all TV feed line coaxial connectors are installed properly
    Your amateur radio station may interfere with a nearby radio receiver if
    your signal is so strong that the receiver cannot reject the signal even
    though your signal is not on the frequency to which the receiver is tuned.
    This is called fundamental overload.


    What would cause a broadcast AM or FM radio to receive an amateur radio transmission unintentionally?

    A. The receiver is unable to reject strong signals outside the AM or FM band

    B. The microphone gain of the transmitter is turned up too high

    C. The audio amplifier of the transmitter is overloaded

    D. The deviation of an FM transmitter is set too low
    To reduce or eliminate fundamental overload, you can install a filter at
    the radio or TV input to block the interfering signal.


    How can fundamental overload of a non-amateur radio or TV receiver by an amateur signal be reduced or eliminated?

    A. Block the amateur signal with a filter at the antenna input of the
    affected receiver

    B. Block the interfering signal with a filter on the amateur transmitter

    C. Switch the transmitter from FM to SSB

    D. Switch the transmitter to a narrow-band mode
    The process can work the other way, too. When driving by the antenna of a high-power broadcast station you may notice that your VHF transceiver is picking up the broadcast station signal. This is often the result of


    Which of the following can reduce overload of a VHF transceiver by a nearby commercial FM station?

    A. Installing an RF preamplifier

    B. Using double-shielded coaxial cable

    C. Installing bypass capacitors on the microphone cable

    D. Installing a band-reject filter
    The band of frequencies that you want to reject is the band that includes
    the broadcast station frequency.
    Interference works both ways. Your neighbors may have wireless devices that
    can interfere with your station. While they are responsible for eliminating
    the interference, chances are they don’t have the expertise necessary to
    find and eliminate the interference, so your best option is to try and work with them.


    What should you do if something in a neighbor’s home is causing harmful interference to your amateur station?

    A. Work with your neighbor to identify the offending device

    B. Politely inform your neighbor that FCC rules prohibit the use of devices that cause interference

    C. Make sure your station meets the standards of good amateur practice

    D. All these choices are correct
    Perhaps the most common problem that amateur radio operators have is
    distorted or noisy audio when transmitting. There are many reasons for poor audio.


    What might be a problem if you receive a report that your audio signal
    through an FM repeater is distorted or unintelligible?

    A. Your transmitter is slightly off frequency

    B. Your batteries are running low

    C. You are in a bad location

    D. All these choices are correct


    What is a symptom of RF feedback in a transmitter or transceiver?

    A. Excessive SWR at the antenna connection

    B. The transmitter will not stay on the desired frequency

    C. Reports of garbled, distorted, or unintelligible voice transmissions

    D. Frequent blowing of power supply fuses
    Sometimes, garbled or distorted audio when operating FM is the result of over-deviation.


    What can you do if you are told your FM handheld or mobile transceiver is over-deviating?

    A. Talk louder into the microphone

    B. Let the transceiver cool off

    C. Change to a higher power level

    D. Talk farther away from the microphone
    Using basic test instruments and soldering
    The most common test instrument in an amateur radio shack is the
    multimeter. Multimeters are called that because they combine the functions
    of a voltmeter, ohmmeter, and ammeter into a single instrument.


    Which of the following measurements are made using a multimeter?

    A. Signal strength and noise

    B. Impedance and reactance

    C. Voltage and resistance

    D. All these choices are correct
    The voltmeter function of the multimeter is used to measure electromotive force, more commonly known as voltage. You measure the voltage across a component or circuit by connecting the leads in parallel with the component.


    Which instrument would you use to measure electric potential?

    A. An ammeter

    B. A voltmeter

    C. A wavemeter

    D. An ohmmeter


    How is a voltmeter connected to a component to measure applied voltage?

    A. In series

    B. In parallel

    C. In quadrature

    D. In phase
    In order to avoid damaging the multimeter, make sure that it’s set to the voltage setting, not the resistance setting when you want to measure


    Which of the following can damage a multimeter?

    A. Attempting to measure resistance using the voltage setting

    B. Failing to connect one of the probes to ground

    C. Attempting to measure voltage when using the resistance setting

    D. Not allowing it to warm up properly
    The ohmmeter function of a multimeter is used to measure resistance. The
    way an ohmmeter measures the resistance of a circuit is by supplying a
    known current to the circuit, measuring the voltage across the circuit, and then calculating the resistance using Ohms Law, R = V/I. Because we’re actually measuring voltage, we connect an ohmmeter in parallel with a
    component to measure its resistance.


    How is an ohmmeter connected to a component to measure its resistance?

    A. In parallel

    B. In series

    C. In cascade

    D. All these choices are correct


    Which of the following precautions should be taken when measuring
    in-circuit resistance with an ohmmeter?

    A. Ensure that the applied voltages are correct

    B. Ensure that the circuit is not powered

    C. Ensure that the circuit is grounded

    D. Ensure that the circuit is operating at the correct frequency


    What reading indicates that an ohmmeter is connected across a large,
    discharged capacitor?

    A. Increasing resistance with time

    B. Decreasing resistance with time

    C. Steady full-scale reading

    D. Alternating between open and short circuit
    The ammeter function of a multimeter is used to measure current. You
    connect an ammeter in series with a circuit so that the current flowing
    through the circuit also flows through the ammeter.


    Which instrument is used to measure electric current?

    A. An ohmmeter

    B. An electrometer

    C. A voltmeter

    D. An ammeter


    When configured to measure current, how is a multimeter connected to a component?

    A. In series

    B. In parallel

    C. In quadrature

    D. In phase
    In addition to knowing how to make electrical measurements, knowing how to solder is an essential skill for amateur radio operators.


    Which of the following types of solder should not be used for radio and electronic applications?

    A. Acid-core solder

    B. Lead-tin solder

    C. Rosin-core solder

    D. Tin-copper solder


    What is the characteristic appearance of a cold tin-lead solder joint?

    A. Dark black spots

    B. A bright or shiny surface

    C. A rough or lumpy surface

    D. Excessive solder
    We call a poor solder joint a “cold” solder joint because its usually the result of not applying enough heat to the joint. When you dont apply enough heat to a solder joint, the solder does not flow smoothly between the metal surfaces to be joined and often does not make a good connection.

    The post 2022 No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide: Station equipment appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

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