• [KB6NU] Slow-Speed (CW) Tests: Im a believer

    From KB6NU via rec.radio.amateur.moderat@21:1/5 to All on Mon Jan 17 09:20:07 2022
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    KB6NU's Ham Radio Blog

    Slow-Speed (CW) Tests: Im a believer

    Posted: 16 Jan 2022 08:22 PM PST https://www.kb6nu.com/slow-speed-cw-tests-im-a-believer/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email

    The CWops have this thing they call the CW Test, or CWT. CWTs are held
    every Wednesday/Thursday, and include four, one-hour sessions at times that favor different geographic areas. Theyre not exactly contests, and some
    CWops think of them as practice sessions for the real contests, but people
    post their scores to 3830scores.com and brag about them on the CWops
    mailing list, so theyre more than just practice sessions.

    Not being a contester, I’m not a big fan of CWTs. I’ve participated in maybe a half dozen over the years.
    So, when the K1USN Radio Club started a slow-speed version of the CWT,
    called the Slow Speed Test, or SST, about a year ago, I thought to myself, “Oh, great. There’s another hour that 40m is going to be unusable.” When 0000Z rolled around tonight, however, I was sitting in front the radio, and since I had nothing better to do, I thought I’d give it a try. Don’t knock it until you try it, and all that.
    First, I had to futz around with N1MM and my Arduino-based WinKeyer clone.
    I don’t know why, but if I don’t use N1MM for a time, the program fails to find the keyer. I have to either reboot the computer, power-cycle the
    keyer, or both. After I got that working, I configured N1MM to run the
    contest. Finally, I found a frequency to run on. Over the last 40 minutes
    of the SST, I made about one QSO per minute.
    Although I hate to admit it, it was kind of fun. First off, I ran into some people that I know. Second, I got to help some people. You could tell some
    of the folks were struggling, but that was OK. I figured it was my job to
    help them.
    Afterwards, I got this email from one of the struggling operators:

    Thank you so much, tonight was my first CW contact ever. I could tell you
    could tell and slowed right down to the same pace I was using. You were so patient. I appreciate it. I was so nervous I couldn’t even remember how to respond.
    Thanks mate. Have a great one.

    Needless to say, my QSL card to commemorate this hams first CW QSO will be
    in the mail tomorrow. Helping hams make their first CW QSOs and getting
    more comfortable at the key is worth the time and effort. So, I’m now a believer. And, you’ll probably hear my call in next week’s SST.

    The post Slow-Speed (CW) Tests: Im a believer appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

    2022 No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide: Electronic
    components and circuits

    Posted: 15 Jan 2022 07:54 AM PST https://www.kb6nu.com/2022-no-nonsense-technician-class-license-study-guide-electronic-components-and-circuits/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email

    Heres the second chapter from the 2022 version of my No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide.
    Resistors are components that, as the name implies, oppose the flow of
    current. We use them to control how much current flows in a circuit. The
    higher the resistance, the lower the current.
    Most resistors have a fixed value, specified in ohms, but some are designed
    to be variable. That is, you can change the resistance of the resistor by turning a shaft or sliding a control back and forth. Variable resistors,
    also called potentiometers, are often used to allow users to adjust the way
    a device operates.


    What electrical component opposes the flow of current in a DC circuit?

    A. Inductor

    B. Resistor

    C. Inverter

    D. Transformer


    What type of component is often used as an adjustable volume control?

    A. Fixed resistor

    B. Power resistor

    C. Potentiometer

    D. Transformer


    What electrical parameter is controlled by a potentiometer?

    A. Inductance

    B. Resistance

    C. Capacitance

    D. Field strength
    Another common electrical component is the capacitor. The most basic type
    of capacitor consists of two metal plates separated by an insulator, called
    a dielectric. When you put a DC voltage across a capacitor, an electric
    current flows into the capacitor until the voltage across the capacitor
    equals the DC voltage. This puts a positive charge on one plate and a
    negative charge on the other, thereby creating an electric field between
    the two plates.


    What type of electrical component consists of conductive surfaces separated
    by an insulator?

    A. Resistor

    B. Potentiometer

    C. Oscillator

    D. Capacitor


    What electrical component stores energy in an electric field?

    A. Varistor

    B. Capacitor

    C. Inductor

    D. Diode
    The capacitor stores energy in that electric field. The ability to store
    energy in an electric field is called capacitance, and the unit of
    capacitance is called the farad.


    What describes the ability to store energy in an electric field?

    A. Inductance

    B. Resistance

    C. Tolerance

    D. Capacitance


    What is the unit of capacitance?

    A. The farad

    B. The ohm

    C. The volt

    D. The henry
    The third most common type of electrical component in amateur radio
    equipment is the inductor. Inductors are usually small coils of wire, and
    when a current flows through that coil of wire, a magnetic field is set up around the coil.


    What electrical component is typically constructed as a coil of wire?

    A. Switch

    B. Capacitor

    C. Diode

    D. Inductor


    What type of electrical component stores energy in a magnetic field?

    A. Varistor

    B. Capacitor

    C. Inductor

    D. Diode
    The inductor stores energy in the magnetic field. The ability to do this is called inductance, and the unit of inductance is the henry.


    What describes the ability to store energy in a magnetic field?

    A. Admittance

    B. Capacitance

    C. Resistance

    D. Inductance


    What is the unit of inductance?

    A. The coulomb

    B. The farad

    C. The henry

    D. The ohm
    As amateur radio operators, we often use batteries to power our radio equipment. Some types of batteries are rechargeable, while others are not.


    Which of the following battery chemistries is not rechargeable?

    A. Nickel-cadmium

    B. Carbon-zinc

    C. Lead-acid

    D. Lithium-ion


    Which of the following battery chemistries is rechargeable?

    A. Nickel-metal hydride

    B. Lithium-ion

    C. Lead-acid

    D. All these choices are correct
    Diodes are the most basic semiconductor component. They have only two electrodes, called the anode and cathode, and conduct current only when it
    is forward biased. That is to say, diodes only conduct current when the
    voltage on the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. When the
    diode is reverse biased, i.e., when the voltage on the anode is negative
    with respect to the cathode, the diode will not conduct current. To
    identify the cathode, it is often marked with a stripe.


    What electronic component allows current to flow in only one direction?

    A. Resistor

    B. Fuse

    C. Diode

    D. Driven element


    What are the names for the electrodes of a diode?

    A. Plus and minus

    B. Source and drain

    C. Anode and cathode

    D. Gate and base


    How is the cathode lead of a semiconductor diode often marked on the

    A. With the word cathode

    B. With a stripe

    C. With the letter C

    D. With the letter K
    When a diode is forward-biased, and a current flows through a diode, there
    is a voltage drop across the diode called the forward voltage drop. The
    value of the forward voltage drop is lower in some diodes than in others.
    For example, the forward voltage of a germanium diode is about 0.3 V, while
    the forward voltage drop in a silicon diode is about 0.7 V.


    Which is true about forward voltage drop in a diode?

    A. It is lower in some diode types than in others

    B. It is proportional to peak inverse voltage

    C. It indicates that the diode is defective

    D. It has no impact on the voltage delivered to the load
    Light-emitting diodes, or LEDs, are a particular type of diode. When LEDs
    are forward-biased, that is to say when DC current flows through them in
    the forward direction, they emit visible light, making them useful as indicators and as part of digital readouts.


    What causes a light-emitting diode (LED) to emit light?

    A. Forward DC current

    B. Reverse DC current

    C. Capacitively-coupled RF signal

    D. Inductively-coupled RF signal


    Which of the following is commonly used as a visual indicator?

    A. LED

    B. FET

    C. Zener diode

    D. Bipolar transistor
    Transistors are semiconductor components designed to control the current
    flow through them. They have three leads and one of those leads is used as
    the control pin. A current, in the case of the bipolar junction transistor,
    or a voltage, in the case of the field effect transistor, on the control
    pin controls the current flow between the two other pins.
    In some circuits, the transistor is used as a switch, and the control
    signal simply switches the current on and off. In other circuits, the transistor is used as an amplifier. When used as an amplifier, the current through the transistor is proportional to the input current or voltage. The ratio of output current to input current is called the gain of the


    Which of these components can be used as an electronic switch?

    A. Varistor

    B. Potentiometer

    C. Transistor

    D. Thermistor


    What is the term that describes a devices ability to amplify a signal?

    A. Gain

    B. Forward resistance

    C. Forward voltage drop

    D. On resistance


    Which of the following can provide power gain?

    A. Transformer

    B. Transistor

    C. Reactor

    D. Resistor
    Bipolar junction transistors are transistors that consist of three regions
    of semiconductor material. These regions are either P-type, which means
    that it has a positive net charge, or N-type, which means it has a net
    negative charge. Each region has an electrode, making the transistor a
    device with three leads. The names of these three electrodes are emitter,
    base and collector.
    There are two types of bipolar junction transistors: PNP or NPN. A PNP transistor has two P layers, with an N layer sandwiched between them. An
    NPN transistor has two N layers, with a P layer sandwiched between them.


    Which of the following components can consist of three regions of
    semiconductor material?

    A. Alternator

    B. Transistor

    C. Triode

    D. Pentagrid converter


    What are the names of the electrodes of a bipolar junction transistor?

    A. Signal, bias, power

    B. Emitter, base, collector

    C. Input, output, supply

    D. Pole one, pole two, output
    Another type of transistor often found in amateur radio equipment is the field-effect transistor, or FET. To control the flow of current through the field effect transistor, you use a voltage signal on the control pin. This voltage sets up an electric field inside the transistor, hence the name
    field effect transistor. FETs, like NPN and PNP transistors have three electrodes. These electrodes are called the gate, drain, and source.


    What does the abbreviation FET stand for?

    A. Frequency Emission Transmitter

    B. Fast Electron Transistor

    C. Free Electron Transmitter

    D. Field Effect Transistor


    What type of transistor has a gate, drain, and source?

    A. Varistor

    B. Field-effect

    C. Tesla-effect

    D. Bipolar junction
    Circuit diagrams, schematic symbols, component functions
    When describing circuits on paper, we draw diagrams called schematic
    diagrams that show the components used in a circuit and how those
    components are connected together. Using schematic diagrams lets us
    describe how a circuit works and lets us reproduce a circuit more easily.
    The circuit components are represented by symbols that readily identify the type of component and its value or part number.


    What is the name of an electrical wiring diagram that uses standard
    component symbols?

    A. Bill of materials

    B. Connector pinout

    C. Schematic

    D. Flow chart


    Which of the following is accurately represented in electrical schematics?

    A. Wire lengths

    B. Physical appearance of components

    C. Component connections

    D. All these choices are correct

    Figure T-1 is a schematic diagram of a simple transistor circuit. In this circuit, the transistor is used as a switch that turns on a lamp when a positive voltage is applied to the input.


    What is component 1 in figure T-1?

    A. Resistor

    B. Transistor

    C. Battery

    D. Connector


    What is component 2 in figure T-1?

    A. Resistor

    B. Transistor

    C. Indicator lamp

    D. Connector


    What is the function of component 2 in figure T-1?

    A. Give off light when current flows through it

    B. Supply electrical energy

    C. Control the flow of current

    D. Convert electrical energy into radio waves


    What is component 3 in figure T-1?

    A. Resistor

    B. Transistor

    C. Lamp

    D. Ground symbol


    What is component 4 in figure T-1?

    A. Resistor

    B. Transistor

    C. Ground symbol

    D. Battery
    This battery supplies the current that lights the lamp.
    The circuit shown in Figure T2 is a simple power supply. Component 2 is a


    What type of switch is represented by component 3 in figure T-2?

    A. Single-pole single-throw

    B. Single-pole double-throw

    C. Double-pole single-throw

    D. Double-pole double-throw
    It turns the power supply on and off.


    What is component 4 in figure T-2?

    A. Variable inductor

    B. Double-pole switch

    C. Potentiometer

    D. Transformer


    What component changes 120 V AC power to a lower AC voltage for other uses?

    A. Variable capacitor

    B. Transformer

    C. Transistor

    D. Diode
    Component 5 in Figure T2 is a rectifier diode. Rectifier diodes are
    designed to handle the higher currents found in power supply circuits.


    Which of the following devices or circuits changes an alternating current
    into a varying direct current signal?

    A. Transformer

    B. Rectifier

    C. Amplifier

    D. Reflector


    What is component 6 in figure T-2?

    A. Resistor

    B. Capacitor

    C. Regulator IC

    D. Transistor
    Sometimes, this is called a filter capacitor, and its function is to filter
    out remnants of the 60 Hz AC that are part of the varying direct current signal.


    What is component 8 in figure T-2?

    A. Resistor

    B. Inductor

    C. Regulator IC

    D. Light emitting diode
    The LED is a pilot light, serving to alert a user when the power supply is


    What is component 9 in figure T-2?

    A. Variable capacitor

    B. Variable inductor

    C. Variable resistor

    D. Variable transformer
    Its purpose is to limit the output current of the supply.

    The circuit shown in Figure T3 is a type of antenna tuner.


    What is component 3 in figure T-3?

    A. Connector

    B. Meter

    C. Variable capacitor

    D. Variable inductor


    What is component 4 in figure T-3?

    A. Antenna

    B. Transmitter

    C. Dummy load

    D. Ground
    Resonant, or tuned, circuits
    When a circuit has both inductors and capacitors, we sometimes call it a resonant, or tuned circuit. The reason for this is that these circuits have
    a resonant frequency. When a capacitor and inductor are connected in
    series, the circuit has a very low impedance at the resonant frequency.
    When the capacitor and inductor are connected in parallel, the circuit has
    a very high impedance at the resonant frequency


    Which of the following is a resonant or tuned circuit?

    A. An inductor and a capacitor in series or parallel

    B. A linear voltage regulator

    C. A resistor circuit used for reducing standing wave ratio

    D. A circuit designed to provide high-fidelity audio


    Which of the following is combined with an inductor to make a resonant

    A. Resistor

    B. Zener diode

    C. Potentiometer

    D. Capacitor
    Other components
    There are many different types of components in modern radio equipment.
    Below, we will describe the types of components you will need to know about
    to pass the Technician Class license examination.
    Switches are used to open and close circuits or to switch an input or
    output between two or more circuits. A single-pole, dual-throw, or SPDT,
    switch connects a single circuit between two other circuits.


    What is the function of an SPDT switch?

    A. A single circuit is opened or closed

    B. Two circuits are opened or closed

    C. A single circuit is switched between one of two other circuits

    D. Two circuits are each switched between one of two other circuits
    Normally, switches are manually-controlled, such as the light switch in
    your home. Relays, however, are controlled electrically. Applying a voltage
    to the input of a relay causes its output to switch.


    What is a relay?

    A. An electrically-controlled switch

    B. A current controlled amplifier

    C. An inverting amplifier

    D. A pass transistor
    Meters are devices used to indicate many different values. Meters can
    indicate the output voltage of a power supply, the output power of a transmitter, and many other values.


    Which of the following displays an electrical quantity as a numeric value?

    A. Potentiometer

    B. Transistor

    C. Meter

    D. Relay
    To make electronic circuits smaller, component manufacturers make devices
    that have many electronic components on a single piece of silicon. We call these integrated circuits. Integrated circuits, such as microprocessors,
    may have million of transistors inside them.


    What is the name of a device that combines several semiconductors and other components into one package?

    A. Transducer

    B. Multi-pole relay

    C. Integrated circuit

    D. Transformer
    Integrated circuits may perform either analog or digital functions. One
    type of analog integrated circuit that is very common is the voltage


    What type of circuit controls the amount of voltage from a power supply?

    A. Regulator

    B. Oscillator

    C. Filter

    D. Phase inverter
    Power supplies generally have one or more fuses. An output fuse, for
    example, will prevent a device connected to the power supply from drawing
    so much current from the supply that it damages the supply. We call this situation a current overload. The output fuse protects the power supply
    from damage by breaking the connection between the power supply and the
    device being powered when the current rises above a certain value.


    What electrical component is used to protect other circuit components from current overloads?

    A. Fuse

    B. Thyratron

    C. Varactor

    D. All these choices are correct
    When connecting electronic assemblies together, we often use cables with
    one or more conductors. Some of those conductors may have a shield around
    them that is connected to ground.


    Which of the following is a reason to use shielded wire?

    A. To decrease the resistance of DC power connections

    B. To increase the current carrying capability of the wire

    C. To prevent coupling of unwanted signals to or from the wire

    D. To couple the wire to other signals

    The post 2022 No Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide: Electronic components and circuits appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.

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