• Weekly Highlights of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity, 14 - 20 March 2022

    From SWPC.Webmaster@noaa.gov@21:1/5 to All on Mon Mar 21 13:00:12 2022
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    :Product: Weekly Highlights and Forecasts
    :Issued: 2022 Mar 21 0502 UTC
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    # Weekly Highlights and Forecasts
    Highlights of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
    14 - 20 March 2022

    Solar activity reached moderate levels on 14-15 Mar due to an M2
    flare at 14/0840 UTC, an M1/Sn at 15/1239 UTC and an M1/Sf at
    15/2246 UTC all originating from Region 2965 (N23, L=266, class/area
    Fki/620 on 12 Mar). Low levels were observed on 17 and 19-20 Mar
    while very low levels occurred on 16 and 18 Mar. Two CMEs were of
    note with possible Earth-directed components. The first was an
    approximate 10 degree filament eruption beginning at 16/1228 UTC
    centered near N26E23 which produced a CME first visible in LASCO C2
    imagery at 16/1347 UTC off the NE limb. Modelling of the event
    showed a potential glancing blow late on 19 Mar to early on 20 Mar.
    The second CME of interest was due to a C4/1f flare at 20/0745 UTC
    from plage region 2971 (N17, L=180, class/area Bxo/020 on 17 Mar).
    The eruption produced an EIT darkening in AIA 193 imagery as well as
    a Type II radio sweep (188 km/s). An associated CME could be seen
    off the NE limb of LASCO C2 imagery at 20/1100 UTC. Initial
    modelling shows the potential for a glancing blow late on 23 Mar to
    early on 24 Mar.

    No proton events were observed at geosynchronous orbit.

    The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit was at
    normal to moderate levels.

    Geomagnetic field activity began under the waning influence of the
    10 Mar CME. Total field was initially at 24 nT, but began to
    diminish after 14/0740 UTC. Solar wind speed declined from
    approximately 455 km/s to near 425 km/s. The geomagnetic field
    responded with quiet to G2 (Moderate) storm levels on 14 Mar and
    quiet to unsettled conditions on 15 Mar. By midday on 16 Mar, solar
    wind parameters had diminished to nominal levels and maintained
    those levels through late on 19 Mar. Quiet conditions were observed
    on 16-19 Mar. By late on 19 Mar, total field slowly increased to 10
    nT along with density to near 20 p/cm^3. A solar sector boundary
    crossing ensued at 20/1617 UTC. The enhancement as well as the
    sinusoidal like rotation of the Bz component during this time could
    be attributable to the glancing blow from the 16 Mar CME. Quiet to
    unsettled levels were observed on 20 Mar.

    Forecast of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
    21 March - 16 April 2022

    Solar activity is expected to be at very low to low levels for the
    forecast period. There is a chance for M-class (R1-R2,
    Minor-Moderate) flares on 23 Mar-05 Apr as old Region 2957 (S16,
    L=038) returns to the visible disk.

    No proton events are expected at geosynchronous orbit.

    The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit is
    expected to reach moderate to high levels on 21-22 Mar and 02-06 Apr
    due to recurrent CH HSS influence.

    Geomagnetic field activity is expected to reach unsettled to active
    levels on 21-22 Mar due to potential negative polarity CH HSS
    influence. Unsettled to active levels are also expected on 23-25 Mar
    due to a possible glancing blow from the 20 Mar CME combined with a
    positive polarity CH HSS. Unsettled to active levels are expected
    once again on 31 Mar - 03 Apr with G1 (Minor) geomagnetic storm
    levels likely on 01 Apr due to recurrent negative polarity CH HSS

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