• rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file (2/4)

    From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Thu Aug 20 23:31:22 2015
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

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    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

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    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

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    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

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    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

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    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Sun Sep 20 19:55:56 2015
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Tue Oct 20 22:17:55 2015
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Fri Nov 20 20:08:44 2015
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Sun Dec 20 22:56:50 2015
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Wed Jan 20 23:07:44 2016
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Sat Feb 20 22:40:56 2016
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Sun Mar 20 21:21:05 2016
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Thu Apr 21 22:49:24 2016
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Fri May 20 22:42:07 2016
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Thu Aug 20 23:31:22 2015
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Sun Sep 20 19:55:56 2015
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Tue Oct 20 22:17:55 2015
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Fri Nov 20 20:08:44 2015
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Sun Dec 20 22:56:50 2015
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Wed Jan 20 23:07:44 2016
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Sat Feb 20 22:40:56 2016
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Sun Mar 20 21:21:05 2016
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Thu Apr 21 22:49:24 2016
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


    [continued in next message]

    --- SoupGate-Win32 v1.05
    * Origin: fsxNet Usenet Gateway (21:1/5)
  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Fri May 20 22:42:07 2016
    [continued from previous message]

    cabbage, shredded 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 cake crumbs, fresh 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 candied lemon peel 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 candied orange peel 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- cashews, oil roasted 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cauliflower fleurets 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 celery seed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cereal, Rice Krispies 0.09 10.73 0.5 1.4 2 22 20.6 45.5 cheese, cheddar, grated 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cheese, colby, grated 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 cheese, cottage 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 cheese, cream 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cheese, grated parmesan 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 cheese, jack, grated 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 chives, chopped dried 0.03 29.50 0.2 0.5 0 8 56.7 125.0 chives, chopped fresh 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 chocolate chips 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 chocolate, cocoa powder 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 chocolate, grated 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 chocolate, melted 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 cinnamon, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 cloves, ground 0.40 2.48 2.0 6.0 11 95 4.8 10.5 cloves, whole 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coconut, shredded 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 coffee, ground 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 coffee, instant 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 cornmeal 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 cornstarch (cornflour) 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cracker crumbs 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 cranberries 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 cream of tartar 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 cream of wheat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 crisco, melted 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 crisco, solid 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 currants 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- dates, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 egg whites 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 egg yolks 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 eggs, beaten 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 evaporated milk 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 farina 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 figs, dried 0.70 1.43 3.5 10.5 19 165 2.7 6.1 flour, Deaf Smith 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, U.K. self-raising 0.47 2.15 2.3 7.0 13 110 4.1 9.1 flour, U.S. all-purpose 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, buckwheat 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, cake 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, legume 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 flour, potato 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 flour, rice 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 flour, rye 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 flour, semolina 0.74 1.35 3.7 11.1 21 175 2.6 5.7 flour, wheat bread 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 flour, whole wheat 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 fungus, wood ear 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 garlic 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 garlic, minced 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 gelatin 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 ginger, crystal 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 ginger, fresh 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 ginger, ground 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 graham cracker crumbs 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 grape nuts 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 gumdrops 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 gummi bears 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- hazelnuts, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 honey 1.44 0.69 7.2 21.6 40 340 1.3 2.9 kasha 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 lard 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 lemon rind, grated 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 lentils 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 macaroni, uncooked 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 margarine 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 marshmallows, small 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mashed potatoes 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 mayonnaise 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, evaporated 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 milk, powdered 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 molasses 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 mushrooms, Chinese black 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 mushrooms, chopped 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 mushrooms, sliced 0.28 3.63 1.4 4.1 7 65 7.0 15.4 mushrooms, whole 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 mustard seed 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 mustard, dry 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 mustard, prepared 1.06 0.94 5.3 15.9 30 250 1.8 4.0 oatmeal, uncooked 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, rolled 0.34 2.95 1.7 5.1 9 80 5.7 12.5 oats, steel-cut 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 oil, vegetable 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 olive oil 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 olives, chopped 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 onion, chopped 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 onion, minced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 onion, sliced 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 orange rind, grated 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- oreo cookies, crushed 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 paprika 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 parsley, fresh 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 pasta, egg noodles 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 pasta, macaroni 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 peanut butter 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 peanuts, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 peanuts, oil roasted 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peas, uncooked 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 pecans, chopped 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 pecans, ground 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 pecans, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 peppercorns, black 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 peppercorns, white 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 peppers, chopped chili 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 pignolias (pine nuts) 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 poppy seeds 0.57 1.75 2.9 8.6 16 135 3.4 7.4 potatoes, cooked diced 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 potatoes, mashed 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 potatoes, sliced raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 pumpkin, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 raisins 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 rice, steamed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 rice, uncooked 0.89 1.12 4.4 13.3 25 210 2.2 4.8 rice, uncooked Basmati 0.83 1.21 4.1 12.4 23 195 2.3 5.1 rice, wild 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 salt 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 scallions (green onions) 0.21 4.72 1.1 3.2 6 50 9.1 20.0 sesame seeds 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 shallots 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sour cream 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- spaghetti, uncooked 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 spinach, cooked 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 split peas 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 strawberries 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sugar, brown 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 sugar, castor 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, confectioner's 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sugar, granulated 0.81 1.24 4.0 12.1 22 190 2.4 5.3 sugar, powdered 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 sultanas 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 sweet potatoes, cooked 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 sweet potatoes, raw 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 syrup, corn 1.48 0.67 7.4 22.2 42 350 1.3 2.9 tea 0.32 3.15 1.6 4.8 9 75 6.0 13.3 tiger lily blossoms 0.17 5.90 0.8 2.5 4 40 11.3 25.0 tomatoes, chopped 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 tuna, canned 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 turmeric, ground 0.59 1.69 3.0 8.9 16 140 3.2 7.1 vanilla wafers, crushed 0.68 1.48 3.4 10.2 19 160 2.8 6.3 walnuts, chopped 0.49 2.05 2.4 7.3 13 115 3.9 8.7 walnuts, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 walnuts, shelled 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 water 1.00 1.00 5.0 15.1 28 237 1.9 4.2 wheat germ 0.53 1.89 2.6 7.9 15 125 3.6 8.0 wild rice 0.61 1.63 3.1 9.2 17 145 3.1 6.9 yeast, active dry 1.23 0.81 6.1 18.4 34 290 1.6 3.4

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions

    From a post on rec.food.recipes by Stephanie da Silva

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.1 Metric Cups

    Metric Cups Grams Ounces
    (approx) (approx)

    1 cup butter 250 8 3/4
    1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs 110 3 3/4
    1 cup breadcrumbs, soft 60 2
    1 cup breadcrumbs, dry 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cheese, grated 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cocoa 110 3 3/4
    1 cup cornflour (cornstarch) 125 4 1/2
    1 cup cornflakes 30 1
    1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies) 30 1
    1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked) 95 3 1/4
    1 cup dried split peas, lentils 200 7
    1 cup dried fruit 160 5 3/4
    1 cup dates, chopped 150 5 1/4
    1 cup flour, plain, self-rising 125 4 1/2
    1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat) 135 4 3/4
    1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose 360 12 3/4
    1 cup jam 330 11 1/2
    1 cup nuts, chopped 125 4 1/2
    1 cup oats, rolled 90 3 1/4
    1 cup rice, short grain 210 7 1/2
    1 cup rice, long grain 200 7
    1 cup salt, or crystal sugar 250 8 3/4
    1 cup castor sugar (superfine) 220 7 3/4
    1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed 170 6
    1 cup icing sugar (confectioners') 150 5

    1 cup = 250 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons

    Metric spoons Grams Ounces

    1 level tablespoon peanut butter 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon baking powder,
    bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
    gelatine, rice, sago 15 1/2
    1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
    custard powder, nuts 10 1/2
    1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
    treacle, honey, glucose 30 1
    1 level tablespoon sugar, salt 20 2/3
    1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed 20 2/3

    1 tablespoon = 20 ml
    1 teaspoon = 5 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.9 Catties

    In ancient China,
    1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

    In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff. To make the
    transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
    catty. 1 catty = 0.5 kilo ( = 1.1 pound )

    However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
    old catty = 600 grams.

    ----------------------------------------
    2.10 Some Old Measurements

    This chart appears on several Web sites. It is unclear where it
    originated.

    1 wine glass 1/4 cup
    1 jigger 1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup a scant cup
    1 tumbler 1 cup
    1 peck 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash what can be picked up between thumb and first
    two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch what can be picked up between thumb and one
    finger
    1 salt spoon 1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon 1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon 2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful 1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer 1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight 1/20 ounce
    1 drachma 1/8 ounce

    ----------------------------------------
    2.11 Authorities

    K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
    P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
    RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
    S = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

    ----------------------------------------
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms

    ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or Filipino origin. Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
    vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns. In the Mexican incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
    The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

    AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

    AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

    ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available
    ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

    AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
    ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade. It's beige or pink, used as
    a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Also known as
    GARI.

    ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
    fatter than any other short-grain rice. It's used to make risotto, a
    creamy rice dish.

    ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
    pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
    and drippingly juicy.

    ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
    sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
    surface. It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
    with large black seeds. Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
    and vanilla. Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

    AUBERGINE - see eggplant

    BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in diameter. The origin is Russian-Jewish. Can come with many types of
    toppings on it. Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion, garlic, poppy seeds etc. Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
    On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
    used as a sandwich bread.

    BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING ("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional
    Balsamic Vinegar.
    An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
    grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
    used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
    imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter
    bottles.

    BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
    rice with a finer texture than regular rice. Often called for in Indian
    and Middle Eastern dishes.

    BEETROOT - Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial
    plant (Beta vulgaris). Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
    sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

    BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

    BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names. May
    also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

    BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

    BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies or crackers, which may be
    sweet or savoury. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour,
    milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast - small, and similar
    to what much of the world refers to as 'scones'.

    BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
    Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

    BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

    BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

    BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string. Generally includes thyme, parsley, bay leaves. Often, celery is included, too. Sometimes,
    also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added. Used in various recipes.
    The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

    BRINJAL - see Eggplant

    BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
    Beloit, Wis. It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
    pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
    coatings and condiments. It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
    supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

    BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks
    like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets
    are eaten. Really good sautÚed with garlic and olive oil and served
    over pasta. Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

    BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
    rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
    and tender-crisp texture. Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
    used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

    CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
    Southern Europe.

    CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
    Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms. They are
    used in Italian soups and salads.

    CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

    CAPER - Immature flower bud of the caper bush, Capparis spinosa.
    Commercially available capers are pickled in brine, oil or vinegar, or
    packed in salt. Their flavour is slightly pungent, astringent and
    salty. Capers are used as seasoning or garnish, and in sauces or
    condiments.
    Capers are sorted and sold by size; from the largest to the smallest,
    the names are communes or grusas or hors calibre, capottes, capucines,
    mifines, fines, surfines, and nonpareilles. However, the gradations are
    not always consistent. The smallest/finest/least developed ones are more
    higly valued.

    CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour. Can be
    orange, red, yellow, green or black. Also known as Bell Pepper.

    CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

    CATSUP - see Ketchup

    CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
    root. It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
    cross between strong celery and parsley. Often called for raw and
    shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

    CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton. This gourd-like fruit is
    about the size and shape of a very large pear. Under the pale green
    skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh. They can be cooked like
    any summer squash or used raw in salads. Chayote seeds are edible, too.

    CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
    and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
    crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

    CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

    CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

    CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane noodles or harusame. These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
    starch of green mung beans. They are soaked in water to soften before
    adding to recipes for side dishes. If added to soup they do not need to
    be presoaked. They can also be deep-fried.

    CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalape˝o.
    Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Because
    they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in
    recipes.

    CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
    ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
    be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style
    recipes.

    CIDER - widely varying definitions! A drink (almost) always made from
    pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is. If in
    doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

    CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/
    Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

    CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
    milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
    82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
    then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

    COCKLES - clams

    CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
    Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10? years now).
    Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
    Trinidad, or Honduras. One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
    approx. These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
    These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
    (to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.

    CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR - UK icing sugar

    CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur. Similarly in France and
    Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier). In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
    syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
    a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

    CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

    CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat. Used
    to thicken sauces etc. Also called cornstarch.

    CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

    COURGETTE - see Zucchini

    COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
    balls. It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
    being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
    is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
    rice. Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
    the same name.

    CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is a substance
    found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
    making. It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
    in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
    reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

    CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

    CR╚ME FRA╬CHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
    been added. Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
    without actually being sour. Often used on ice cream in France in
    Belgium after beating with sugar.

    CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini. A darker
    brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
    mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). They have a fuller flavour than white
    mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes. The portobello (also portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

    DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
    this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour. It
    is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
    ways, such as in a stir-fry.

    DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
    shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
    common in other countries.

    DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
    Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same
    thing.

    DONAX - clams.

    DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

    EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh). The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
    usually are bright to dark green. They can be found frozen and should
    be steamed in salted water. When the beans are removed from the pod
    they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour. Discard the pod. The beans can
    be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

    EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called brinjal in
    parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

    ESCARGOT - Snails. They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
    Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc. The edible
    snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
    inches diameter.

    ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a
    water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
    alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
    or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
    Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
    sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth
    is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin
    beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
    12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not
    possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
    vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon
    pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar). Oils, such as
    orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
    sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of
    rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

    FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

    FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe. In
    the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
    grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
    planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
    and eaten in April and May. They are grown for animal forage in Italy
    as well. They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and
    flat.

    FEIJ├O - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be
    confused with:

    FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long. Although it is not a guava
    you may know it as a Pineapple Guava. Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
    shrub, growing to 10-16 ft. It thrives in subtropical regions but is
    hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts. They are either
    eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &
    chutneys.

    FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

    FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
    pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

    FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot. These tiny, tender French
    kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
    classic accompaniment to lamb.

    FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French. Smooth, creamy
    low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly sweet-and-sour taste.

    GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
    in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal, chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut
    milk.

    GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

    GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
    taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
    the same thing.

    GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5


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