• rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file (1/4)

    From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Thu Aug 20 23:31:22 2015
    XPost: rec.food.cooking, rec.answers, news.answers

    Archive-name: cooking/faq
    Maintained-by: Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    LAST UPDATED 20 July, 2013

    - Capers (section 3)

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------- |Copyright Victor Sack 2003-2015, Copyright Mary Frye and Victor |
    |Sack 1999-2003, Copyright Amy Gale 1993-1999, Copyright Cindy | |Kandolf 1992-1993. All Rights Reserved. Portions Copyright by |
    |their particular authors. |
    | |
    |This FAQ may be cited as "The rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file|
    |as of <date>, available in rtfm.mit.edu FAQ archives as /cooking/faq" |
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    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    An easier-to-navigate frames version of the FAQ is available at http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/rfc_faq.html

    Welcome to the rec.food.cooking FAQ list and conversion helper!

    The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different
    countries communicate with one another. The problem is that
    measurements and terms for food vary from country to country,
    even if both countries speak English.

    However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list.
    You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. Try
    not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the
    product. If you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication
    of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume.

    A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery
    store is called a kiwi fruit. Whoever said "A pint's a pound the world
    around" must have believed the US was on another planet. And cast iron
    pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion!

    If you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read
    the guides to the Net and the Net etiquette which are posted to news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions regularly.
    They are also available via anonymous FTP from ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/announce/newusers/
    or from
    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/newusers/questions/.
    In particular, you are strongly encouraged to read the following
    postings:

    What is Usenet?
    <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/what-is/part1/>

    A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/primer/part1>

    Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/faq/part1/>

    Rules for posting to Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Hints on writing style for Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/writing-style/part1/>

    Advertising on Usenet: How To Do It, How Not To Do It <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/advertising/how-to/part1/>

    How To Find the Right Place To Post <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/finding-groups/general>

    The moderators of news.newusers.questions maintain an excellent Web site
    with helpful links to basic Usenet information. The site is at http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/.

    The traditionally accepted quoting style is discussed at <http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/nquote.shtml>.

    Another excellent introduction to Usenet is available from <http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_6.html>.

    You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as
    know about smileys, followups and when to reply by email to postings.

    This FAQ is currently posted to rec.food.cooking, news.answers,
    rec.answers and rec.food.recipes. All posts to news.answers are
    archived, and it is possible to retrieve the last posted copy via
    anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/rec.food.cooking. Those
    without FTP access should send e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with
    "send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the body to find out how
    to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

    This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, and has been extended
    and maintained by Amy Gale since 1993. In August 1999, Maryf and Victor
    Sack have taken over the FAQ maintaining. In July 2003, Victor Sack
    became the sole maintainer. The FAQ has always benefited from
    contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. Credits appear at
    the end.

    Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then
    the section number. This should make searching for a specific section
    easy.

    Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have
    many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it,
    and see.

    Comments, corrections and changes to:
    Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    ----------------------------------------
    List of Answers

    1 Substitutions and Equivalents
    1.1 Flours
    1.2 Leavening Agents
    1.3 Dairy Products
    1.4 Starches
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners
    1.6 Fats
    1.7 Chocolates
    1.8 Meats
    1.9 Salt
    2 US/UK/metric conversions
    2.1 Oven temperatures
    2.2 Food equivalencies
    2.2.1 Flours
    2.2.2 Cereals
    2.2.3 Sugars
    2.2.4 Fats and Cheeses
    2.2.5 Vegetables and Fruit
    2.2.6 Dried Fruit and Nuts
    2.2.7 Preserves
    2.2.8 Egg sizes
    2.3 American liquid measures
    2.4 British liquid measures
    2.5 British short cuts
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops
    2.7 General Conversion Tables
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements
    2.7.2 Weight
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions
    2.8.1 Metric Cups
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons
    2.9 Catties
    2.10 Some Old Measurements
    2.11 Authorities
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms
    4 Cooking Methods
    4.1 Poaching
    4.2 Frying
    4.3 Sauting (and deglazing)
    4.4 Broiling
    4.5 Caramelising (of onions)
    4.6 Braising
    4.7 Cooking with alcohol
    4.8 Roasting
    5 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment
    5.1 Woks
    5.2 Cast Iron
    6 History and Lore of rec.food.cooking
    6.1 Origins of rec.food.cooking
    6.2 Some Higlights in the Life of rec.food.cooking
    6.3 What's all this about xxxx?
    7 This has come up once too often
    8 Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
    8.1 Recipe archives
    8.2 Other cooking/food sites
    9 Food newsgroups and mailing lists
    9.1 rec.food.cooking
    9.2 rec.food.recipes
    9.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.restaurants
    9.4 rec.food.veg
    9.5 rec.food.veg.cooking
    9.6 rec.food.preserving
    9.7 also...
    9.8 mailing lists
    10 Other culinary FAQs
    10.1 Foods
    10.2 Beverages
    10.3 Religion, lifestyle and special diets
    10.4 Miscellaneous
    10.5 Humour
    11 "Unofficial" rec.food.cooking Web site
    12 Sources
    12.1 Contributors
    12.2 Bibliography

    ----------------------------------------
    1 Substitutions and Equivalents

    This section contains information on where substitutions can be made,
    and what they can be made with.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.1 Flours

    US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one
    another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is
    not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour
    and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.

    Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2
    teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. Some brands in some regions don't
    contain salt.

    US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.2 Leavening agents

    Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic
    ingredients to work. Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered
    acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.3 Dairy Products

    Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are
    thick and a weird colour... but are not, as I thought when I was small,
    the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed
    with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but
    this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons
    dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup
    granulated sugar. If you're not sure whether it is available in your
    market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "Good Luck"
    is apparently a common brand in North America.

    If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour
    milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of
    vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't
    stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

    The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
    (UK) (US)
    Clotted Cream 55%
    Double Cream 48%
    Heavy Cream 36%
    Whipping Cream 35% 30%
    Whipped Cream 35%
    Single Cream 18% (=Light Cream)
    Half Cream 12% (=Half and Half*)

    * Half and Half has only 10% butterfat in British Columbia.

    For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3.

    Quark (aka quarg) [7]
    A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream,
    Quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat. Though the calories
    are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than
    that of lowfat sour cream. It has a milder flavour and richer texture
    than lowfat yoghurt. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to
    top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes
    including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.4 Starches

    UK cornflour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its
    name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It
    often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

    In the US, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal. If in doubt about
    which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it
    to you! A couple of rules of thumb:
    - in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch
    - as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground
    cornmeal

    Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour!
    What one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to
    cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

    Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be
    used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.

    If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount
    of all-purpose/plain flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it
    to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners

    UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.
    There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the
    same as UK castor/caster sugar. It is called "berry sugar" in British Columbia. Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but I've got reports of times this
    didn't work so well! As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the
    substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

    (US) Confectioner's sugar is (UK/Aust/NZ) icing sugar. Sometimes these
    are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch).
    This can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan.

    Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden)
    syrup can be substituted.

    Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. Light corn syrup is
    just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. Some people have
    substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found
    it successful. A common US brand is Karo.

    Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane
    sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight
    acidic, metallic component. Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in rec.food.cooking, the New Zealand brand name is Chelsea.

    If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2
    parts sugar, 1 part water. This could be messy. You may want to thin
    it out with water. Again, you may want to try this out on your own
    before making something for a special occasion.

    Black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.6 Fats

    Shortening is any fat used to make pastry short.
    A popular brand name is Crisco, solid white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil, and many people call all shortening Crisco. It is
    common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe.
    In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute butter or
    margarine for Crisco. The result will have a slightly different
    texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say, chocolate
    chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). Sometimes this doesn't work
    too well. Not to sound like a broken record but - try it out before an important occasion.

    Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and
    used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and
    left to set.

    Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it
    makes very flaky pastry.

    Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter
    and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil.
    Corn and peanut oils are both good.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.7 Chocolates

    If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three
    tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat
    (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

    US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the
    darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also
    called bittersweet). What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called
    milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is
    the US dark or UK plain. "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term
    for high quality plain chocolate.

    Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark,"
    "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be
    minor variations on a theme.

    Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates,
    because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.8 Meats

    If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use Cornish game hens

    ----------------------------------------
    1.9 Salt

    There are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt.
    They are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride. Table
    salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea. Sea salt
    is extracted from evaporated sea water.

    From these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing
    somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use. Some of
    them are listed below.

    - Table salt. It is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt)
    and often contains anti-caking agents.

    - Kosher salt. Called so, because it is used for koshering purposes,
    i.e., drawing blood from meat. It is a coarse salt which generally
    contains no additives. Because of the large size of the crystals, about
    twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste
    intensity as would be needed using regular table salt. Many people
    prefer it to the regular table salt.

    - Pickling salt. It is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and
    canning. Like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as
    anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine.

    - Sel gris. Grey sea salt. This kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining various minerals. Produced near the town of Gurande in Brittany,
    France. It is said to smell of the sea. Generally used for seasoning
    already cooked dishes.

    - Fleur de sel. A very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but creamy-white in colour. Harvested from the thin white film that forms
    on the surface of the salt marshes in Brittany. Said to be prized by
    some French chefs. Some other people consider it a marketing gimmick.
    Also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Indian black salt (kala namak). Brown-to-black in colour, it has a
    smoky, sulphuric flavour. Used in some Indian dishes.

    - Hawaiian alaea salt. It takes its name and a reddish colour from the
    red clay (alaea) found along the shores. It is also generally used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Rock salt. Greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing
    many minerals and impurities. Supposed to be inedible, it is used in
    ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads.

    ----------------------------------------
    2 US/UK/metric conversions

    Some of these tables were combined from various sources by Andrew
    Mossberg aem(at)symcor.com, whose sources included Caroline Knight cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com, Fruitbat and the New York City Library Desk Reference. Other tables were compiled from a variety of sources.
    Corrections and additions welcomed!

    ----------------------------------------
    2.1 Oven Temperatures

    An approximate conversion chart(P):-

    Electric Gas mark Description

    Fahrenheit Celsius

    225F 110C 1/4 Very cool/very slow
    250F 130C 1/2
    275F 140C 1 cool
    300F 150C 2
    325F 170C 3 very moderate
    350F 180C 4 moderate
    375F 190C 5
    400F 200C 6 moderately hot
    425F 220C 7 hot
    450F 230C 8
    475F 240C 9 very hot

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2 Food Equivalencies

    Sometimes the sources did not agree... I've given both:-

    British measure American equivalent

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.1 Flours

    flour - white plain/strong/ sifted flour - all-purpose/
    self-raising/unbleached unbleached white
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    5 oz(K)
    wholemeal/stoneground whole wheat
    6 oz(K) 1 cup
    cornflour cornstarch
    4 1/2 oz (P) 1 cup
    5.3 oz (K)
    yellow corn meal/polenta coarse corn meal/polenta
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    rye flour rye flour
    6 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.2 Cereals

    pearl barley pearl barley
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
    berries
    7 oz(K) 1 cup
    semolina/ground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/
    cake crumbs cake crumbs
    2 oz(P) 1 cup
    dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    porridge oats rolled oats
    3 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.3 Sugars

    light/dark soft brown sugar light/dark brown sugar
    8 oz(P) 1 cup (firmly packed)
    castor/caster/granulated sugar granulated sugar
    7 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup
    icing sugar sifted confectioners' sugar
    4 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.4 Fats and cheeses

    butter, margarine, cooking butter, shortening, lard,
    fat, lard, dripping drippings - solid or melted
    1 oz(P) 2 tablespoons
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    grated cheese - cheddar type grated cheese - cheddar type
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    1 lb(K) 4 - 5 cups (packed)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.5 Vegetables and fruit

    onion onion
    1 small to med 1 cup chopped
    shelled peas shelled peas
    4 oz(P) 3/4 cup
    cooked sweet corn cooked sweet corn
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    celery celery
    4 sticks 1 cup (chopped)
    chopped tomatoes chopped tomatoes
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    button mushrooms button mushrooms
    3-4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped pickled beetroot chopped pickled beetroot
    2 oz(P) 1/3 cup
    black/redcurrants/bilberries black/redcurrants/bilberries
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    raspberries/strawberries raspberries/strawberries
    5 oz(P) 1 cup

    Dried beans:
    black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
    white white
    3 1/2 oz(K) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.6 Dried fruit and nuts, etc.

    currants/sultanas/raisins/ currants/sultanas/raisins/
    chopped candied peel chopped candied peel
    5-6 oz(P) 1 cup
    2 oz(K - raisins) 1/3 cup
    glace cherries candied cherries
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    sesame seeds sesame seeds
    3 1/2 oz 3/4 cup
    whole shelled almonds whole shelled almonds
    5 oz(P) 1 cup
    ground almonds ground almonds
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped nuts chopped nuts
    2 oz(K) 1/3 to 1/2 cup

    Nut butters:
    peanut/almond/cashew etc. peanut/almond/cashew etc.
    8 oz(K) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.7 Preserves

    clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/
    molasses/black treacle molasses/black treacle
    12 oz(P) 1 cup
    maple/corn syrup maple/corn syrup
    11 oz(P) 1 cup
    jam/marmalade/jelly jam/marmalade/jelly
    5-6 oz(P) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.8 Egg sizes

    According to the BEIS (British Egg Information Service) Web site, eggs
    in the UK are now sold in four different sizes: Small, Medium, Large and
    Very Large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7).

    UK egg sizes

    New Size Weight Old Size

    Very Large 73g +over Size 0
    Size 1

    Large 63 - 73g Size 1
    Size 2
    Size 3

    Medium 53 - 63g Size 3
    Size 4
    Size 5

    Small 53g +under Size 5
    Size 6
    Size 7

    US egg sizes

    Egg sizes Average weight

    Jumbo 2 1/2 oz (71g)
    Extra-large 2 1/4 oz (64g)
    Large 2 oz (57g)
    Medium 1 3/4 oz (50g)
    Small 1 1/2 oz (43g)
    Peewee 1 1/4 oz (35g)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.3 American Liquid Measures

    1 liquid pint 473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
    1 dry pint 551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
    1 cup 237 ml ( 8 fl oz)
    1 tablespoon 15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
    1 fluid ounce 30 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.4 British Liquid Measures

    1 pint 568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
    1 breakfast cup ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
    1 tea cup 1/3 pint
    1 tablespoon 15 ml
    1 dessertspoon 10 ml
    1 teaspoon 5 ml 1/3 tablespoon

    And from
    "Mastering the art of French cooking". Penguin UK, issue 1961
    UK UK oz Metric ml US oz

    1 quart 40 1140 38.5
    1 pint 20 570
    1 cup 10
    1 gill 5
    1 fluid oz 1 28.4 0.96
    1 tbl 5/8 (1/16 cup) 17.8?
    1 dsp 1/3 10
    1 tsp 1/6 5

    ----------------------------------------
    2.5 British Short Cuts (S)

    Cheese (grated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Cocoa or chocolate powder 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Coconut (desiccated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Flour (unsifted) 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Sugar (castor/caster) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (granulated) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (icing) 1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
    Syrup (golden) 1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops

    From a post on rec.food.cooking by Andrew Nicholson

    BTU - British Thermal Unit

    BTU x 1054 = Joules
    Watts x Seconds = Joules

    BTU = Watts x (Seconds/1054) = Watts x 3.415

    Gas Cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 BTU up
    to 12,000 BTU.

    Electric Cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts.

    To help you compare gas burners to electric elements:

    BTU Watts
    ------- ---------
    100 35
    200 70 <- gas burners lowest setting
    3400 1000
    6500 1900
    8000 2300 <- most electric tops stop here
    10000 2900
    12000 3500

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7 General Conversion Tables

    Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
    (mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements

    standard cup tablespoon teaspoon

    Canada 250ml 15ml 5ml
    Australia 250ml ** 20ml ** 5ml
    New Zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml
    UK 250ml 15ml 5ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.2 Weight

    1 ounce = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
    1 pound = 454 g
    1 kg = 2.2 pounds

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements

    1 litre = 1.057 quarts
    2.1 pints
    1 quart = 0.95 litre
    1 gallon= 3.8 litres
    1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
    1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
    1/3 " = 0.8 dl = 78 ml
    1/2 " = 1.2 dl = 120 ml
    2/3 " = 1.6 dl = 160 ml
    3/4 " = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
    7/8 " = 2.1 dl = 210 ml
    1 cup = 2.4 dl = 240 ml
    1 dl = 2/5 cup
    = 6 to 7 tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous

    1 UK pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
    1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz.

    a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is
    1/2 cup US.
    each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in
    US recipes weighs about 50 g.
    there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

    Gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form. The
    following is from a post by Sophie Laplante.

    It looks like there are different size sheets, and different size
    packets (US vs Europe). So the only way to go is to convert by weight.
    In France, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the UK
    it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the US.

    One Knox powdered gelatine envelope (US) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams.

    1 (US) envelope = 7 g,
    = 7 1-gram sheets,
    = 4 1.66-gram sheets,
    = 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets.

    1 (Europe) envelope = 11 g
    = 11 1-gram sheets,
    = 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets
    = 5 2-gram sheets

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart

    This chart was once posted by T. Terrell Banks who got it from a now
    forgotten source. It was then preserved on William Chuang's Web site.

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- allspice 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 almonds, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 almonds, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 anchovies 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 apples, dried 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 apples, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 apricots, dried 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 arrowroot 0.95 1.05 4.8 14.3 27 225 2.0 4.4 bacon fat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking powder 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking soda 0.87 1.15 4.3 13.0 24 205 2.2 4.9 bamboo shoots 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 bananas, mashed 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 bananas, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 barley, uncooked 0.78 1.28 3.9 11.8 22 185 2.5 5.4 basil, dried 0.11 9.44 0.5 1.6 3 25 18.1 40.0 beans, dried 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 beef, cooked 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 beef, raw 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 biscuit mix (Bisquick) 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 blue corn meal 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 bran, unsifted 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 brazil nuts, whole 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 bread crumbs, fresh 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 bread crumbs, packaged 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 buckwheat groats 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 butter 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3

    [continued in next message]

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  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Sun Sep 20 19:55:56 2015
    XPost: rec.food.cooking, rec.answers, news.answers

    Archive-name: cooking/faq
    Maintained-by: Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    LAST UPDATED 20 July, 2013

    - Capers (section 3)

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------- |Copyright Victor Sack 2003-2015, Copyright Mary Frye and Victor |
    |Sack 1999-2003, Copyright Amy Gale 1993-1999, Copyright Cindy | |Kandolf 1992-1993. All Rights Reserved. Portions Copyright by |
    |their particular authors. |
    | |
    |This FAQ may be cited as "The rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file|
    |as of <date>, available in rtfm.mit.edu FAQ archives as /cooking/faq" |
    | | |Permission to reproduce this document, or any whole section or | |substantial part (unless it was you who wrote it!) for profit is | |explicitly not granted. Permission to distribute free of charge or |
    |with charges only to cover the cost of reproduction is granted, | |provided credits remain intact. This paragraph and the two above |
    |must also be included, and the same restrictions apply to subsequent |
    |use of the material. |
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    An easier-to-navigate frames version of the FAQ is available at http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/rfc_faq.html

    Welcome to the rec.food.cooking FAQ list and conversion helper!

    The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different
    countries communicate with one another. The problem is that
    measurements and terms for food vary from country to country,
    even if both countries speak English.

    However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list.
    You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. Try
    not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the
    product. If you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication
    of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume.

    A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery
    store is called a kiwi fruit. Whoever said "A pint's a pound the world
    around" must have believed the US was on another planet. And cast iron
    pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion!

    If you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read
    the guides to the Net and the Net etiquette which are posted to news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions regularly.
    They are also available via anonymous FTP from ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/announce/newusers/
    or from
    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/newusers/questions/.
    In particular, you are strongly encouraged to read the following
    postings:

    What is Usenet?
    <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/what-is/part1/>

    A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/primer/part1>

    Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/faq/part1/>

    Rules for posting to Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Hints on writing style for Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/writing-style/part1/>

    Advertising on Usenet: How To Do It, How Not To Do It <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/advertising/how-to/part1/>

    How To Find the Right Place To Post <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/finding-groups/general>

    The moderators of news.newusers.questions maintain an excellent Web site
    with helpful links to basic Usenet information. The site is at http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/.

    The traditionally accepted quoting style is discussed at <http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/nquote.shtml>.

    Another excellent introduction to Usenet is available from <http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_6.html>.

    You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as
    know about smileys, followups and when to reply by email to postings.

    This FAQ is currently posted to rec.food.cooking, news.answers,
    rec.answers and rec.food.recipes. All posts to news.answers are
    archived, and it is possible to retrieve the last posted copy via
    anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/rec.food.cooking. Those
    without FTP access should send e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with
    "send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the body to find out how
    to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

    This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, and has been extended
    and maintained by Amy Gale since 1993. In August 1999, Maryf and Victor
    Sack have taken over the FAQ maintaining. In July 2003, Victor Sack
    became the sole maintainer. The FAQ has always benefited from
    contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. Credits appear at
    the end.

    Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then
    the section number. This should make searching for a specific section
    easy.

    Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have
    many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it,
    and see.

    Comments, corrections and changes to:
    Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    ----------------------------------------
    List of Answers

    1 Substitutions and Equivalents
    1.1 Flours
    1.2 Leavening Agents
    1.3 Dairy Products
    1.4 Starches
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners
    1.6 Fats
    1.7 Chocolates
    1.8 Meats
    1.9 Salt
    2 US/UK/metric conversions
    2.1 Oven temperatures
    2.2 Food equivalencies
    2.2.1 Flours
    2.2.2 Cereals
    2.2.3 Sugars
    2.2.4 Fats and Cheeses
    2.2.5 Vegetables and Fruit
    2.2.6 Dried Fruit and Nuts
    2.2.7 Preserves
    2.2.8 Egg sizes
    2.3 American liquid measures
    2.4 British liquid measures
    2.5 British short cuts
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops
    2.7 General Conversion Tables
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements
    2.7.2 Weight
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions
    2.8.1 Metric Cups
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons
    2.9 Catties
    2.10 Some Old Measurements
    2.11 Authorities
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms
    4 Cooking Methods
    4.1 Poaching
    4.2 Frying
    4.3 Sauting (and deglazing)
    4.4 Broiling
    4.5 Caramelising (of onions)
    4.6 Braising
    4.7 Cooking with alcohol
    4.8 Roasting
    5 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment
    5.1 Woks
    5.2 Cast Iron
    6 History and Lore of rec.food.cooking
    6.1 Origins of rec.food.cooking
    6.2 Some Higlights in the Life of rec.food.cooking
    6.3 What's all this about xxxx?
    7 This has come up once too often
    8 Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
    8.1 Recipe archives
    8.2 Other cooking/food sites
    9 Food newsgroups and mailing lists
    9.1 rec.food.cooking
    9.2 rec.food.recipes
    9.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.restaurants
    9.4 rec.food.veg
    9.5 rec.food.veg.cooking
    9.6 rec.food.preserving
    9.7 also...
    9.8 mailing lists
    10 Other culinary FAQs
    10.1 Foods
    10.2 Beverages
    10.3 Religion, lifestyle and special diets
    10.4 Miscellaneous
    10.5 Humour
    11 "Unofficial" rec.food.cooking Web site
    12 Sources
    12.1 Contributors
    12.2 Bibliography

    ----------------------------------------
    1 Substitutions and Equivalents

    This section contains information on where substitutions can be made,
    and what they can be made with.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.1 Flours

    US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one
    another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is
    not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour
    and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.

    Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2
    teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. Some brands in some regions don't
    contain salt.

    US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.2 Leavening agents

    Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic
    ingredients to work. Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered
    acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.3 Dairy Products

    Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are
    thick and a weird colour... but are not, as I thought when I was small,
    the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed
    with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but
    this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons
    dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup
    granulated sugar. If you're not sure whether it is available in your
    market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "Good Luck"
    is apparently a common brand in North America.

    If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour
    milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of
    vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't
    stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

    The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
    (UK) (US)
    Clotted Cream 55%
    Double Cream 48%
    Heavy Cream 36%
    Whipping Cream 35% 30%
    Whipped Cream 35%
    Single Cream 18% (=Light Cream)
    Half Cream 12% (=Half and Half*)

    * Half and Half has only 10% butterfat in British Columbia.

    For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3.

    Quark (aka quarg) [7]
    A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream,
    Quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat. Though the calories
    are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than
    that of lowfat sour cream. It has a milder flavour and richer texture
    than lowfat yoghurt. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to
    top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes
    including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.4 Starches

    UK cornflour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its
    name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It
    often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

    In the US, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal. If in doubt about
    which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it
    to you! A couple of rules of thumb:
    - in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch
    - as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground
    cornmeal

    Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour!
    What one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to
    cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

    Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be
    used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.

    If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount
    of all-purpose/plain flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it
    to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners

    UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.
    There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the
    same as UK castor/caster sugar. It is called "berry sugar" in British Columbia. Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but I've got reports of times this
    didn't work so well! As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the
    substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

    (US) Confectioner's sugar is (UK/Aust/NZ) icing sugar. Sometimes these
    are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch).
    This can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan.

    Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden)
    syrup can be substituted.

    Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. Light corn syrup is
    just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. Some people have
    substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found
    it successful. A common US brand is Karo.

    Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane
    sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight
    acidic, metallic component. Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in rec.food.cooking, the New Zealand brand name is Chelsea.

    If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2
    parts sugar, 1 part water. This could be messy. You may want to thin
    it out with water. Again, you may want to try this out on your own
    before making something for a special occasion.

    Black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.6 Fats

    Shortening is any fat used to make pastry short.
    A popular brand name is Crisco, solid white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil, and many people call all shortening Crisco. It is
    common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe.
    In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute butter or
    margarine for Crisco. The result will have a slightly different
    texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say, chocolate
    chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). Sometimes this doesn't work
    too well. Not to sound like a broken record but - try it out before an important occasion.

    Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and
    used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and
    left to set.

    Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it
    makes very flaky pastry.

    Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter
    and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil.
    Corn and peanut oils are both good.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.7 Chocolates

    If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three
    tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat
    (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

    US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the
    darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also
    called bittersweet). What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called
    milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is
    the US dark or UK plain. "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term
    for high quality plain chocolate.

    Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark,"
    "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be
    minor variations on a theme.

    Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates,
    because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.8 Meats

    If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use Cornish game hens

    ----------------------------------------
    1.9 Salt

    There are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt.
    They are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride. Table
    salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea. Sea salt
    is extracted from evaporated sea water.

    From these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing
    somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use. Some of
    them are listed below.

    - Table salt. It is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt)
    and often contains anti-caking agents.

    - Kosher salt. Called so, because it is used for koshering purposes,
    i.e., drawing blood from meat. It is a coarse salt which generally
    contains no additives. Because of the large size of the crystals, about
    twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste
    intensity as would be needed using regular table salt. Many people
    prefer it to the regular table salt.

    - Pickling salt. It is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and
    canning. Like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as
    anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine.

    - Sel gris. Grey sea salt. This kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining various minerals. Produced near the town of Gurande in Brittany,
    France. It is said to smell of the sea. Generally used for seasoning
    already cooked dishes.

    - Fleur de sel. A very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but creamy-white in colour. Harvested from the thin white film that forms
    on the surface of the salt marshes in Brittany. Said to be prized by
    some French chefs. Some other people consider it a marketing gimmick.
    Also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Indian black salt (kala namak). Brown-to-black in colour, it has a
    smoky, sulphuric flavour. Used in some Indian dishes.

    - Hawaiian alaea salt. It takes its name and a reddish colour from the
    red clay (alaea) found along the shores. It is also generally used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Rock salt. Greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing
    many minerals and impurities. Supposed to be inedible, it is used in
    ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads.

    ----------------------------------------
    2 US/UK/metric conversions

    Some of these tables were combined from various sources by Andrew
    Mossberg aem(at)symcor.com, whose sources included Caroline Knight cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com, Fruitbat and the New York City Library Desk Reference. Other tables were compiled from a variety of sources.
    Corrections and additions welcomed!

    ----------------------------------------
    2.1 Oven Temperatures

    An approximate conversion chart(P):-

    Electric Gas mark Description

    Fahrenheit Celsius

    225F 110C 1/4 Very cool/very slow
    250F 130C 1/2
    275F 140C 1 cool
    300F 150C 2
    325F 170C 3 very moderate
    350F 180C 4 moderate
    375F 190C 5
    400F 200C 6 moderately hot
    425F 220C 7 hot
    450F 230C 8
    475F 240C 9 very hot

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2 Food Equivalencies

    Sometimes the sources did not agree... I've given both:-

    British measure American equivalent

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.1 Flours

    flour - white plain/strong/ sifted flour - all-purpose/
    self-raising/unbleached unbleached white
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    5 oz(K)
    wholemeal/stoneground whole wheat
    6 oz(K) 1 cup
    cornflour cornstarch
    4 1/2 oz (P) 1 cup
    5.3 oz (K)
    yellow corn meal/polenta coarse corn meal/polenta
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    rye flour rye flour
    6 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.2 Cereals

    pearl barley pearl barley
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
    berries
    7 oz(K) 1 cup
    semolina/ground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/
    cake crumbs cake crumbs
    2 oz(P) 1 cup
    dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    porridge oats rolled oats
    3 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.3 Sugars

    light/dark soft brown sugar light/dark brown sugar
    8 oz(P) 1 cup (firmly packed)
    castor/caster/granulated sugar granulated sugar
    7 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup
    icing sugar sifted confectioners' sugar
    4 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.4 Fats and cheeses

    butter, margarine, cooking butter, shortening, lard,
    fat, lard, dripping drippings - solid or melted
    1 oz(P) 2 tablespoons
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    grated cheese - cheddar type grated cheese - cheddar type
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    1 lb(K) 4 - 5 cups (packed)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.5 Vegetables and fruit

    onion onion
    1 small to med 1 cup chopped
    shelled peas shelled peas
    4 oz(P) 3/4 cup
    cooked sweet corn cooked sweet corn
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    celery celery
    4 sticks 1 cup (chopped)
    chopped tomatoes chopped tomatoes
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    button mushrooms button mushrooms
    3-4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped pickled beetroot chopped pickled beetroot
    2 oz(P) 1/3 cup
    black/redcurrants/bilberries black/redcurrants/bilberries
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    raspberries/strawberries raspberries/strawberries
    5 oz(P) 1 cup

    Dried beans:
    black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
    white white
    3 1/2 oz(K) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.6 Dried fruit and nuts, etc.

    currants/sultanas/raisins/ currants/sultanas/raisins/
    chopped candied peel chopped candied peel
    5-6 oz(P) 1 cup
    2 oz(K - raisins) 1/3 cup
    glace cherries candied cherries
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    sesame seeds sesame seeds
    3 1/2 oz 3/4 cup
    whole shelled almonds whole shelled almonds
    5 oz(P) 1 cup
    ground almonds ground almonds
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped nuts chopped nuts
    2 oz(K) 1/3 to 1/2 cup

    Nut butters:
    peanut/almond/cashew etc. peanut/almond/cashew etc.
    8 oz(K) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.7 Preserves

    clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/
    molasses/black treacle molasses/black treacle
    12 oz(P) 1 cup
    maple/corn syrup maple/corn syrup
    11 oz(P) 1 cup
    jam/marmalade/jelly jam/marmalade/jelly
    5-6 oz(P) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.8 Egg sizes

    According to the BEIS (British Egg Information Service) Web site, eggs
    in the UK are now sold in four different sizes: Small, Medium, Large and
    Very Large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7).

    UK egg sizes

    New Size Weight Old Size

    Very Large 73g +over Size 0
    Size 1

    Large 63 - 73g Size 1
    Size 2
    Size 3

    Medium 53 - 63g Size 3
    Size 4
    Size 5

    Small 53g +under Size 5
    Size 6
    Size 7

    US egg sizes

    Egg sizes Average weight

    Jumbo 2 1/2 oz (71g)
    Extra-large 2 1/4 oz (64g)
    Large 2 oz (57g)
    Medium 1 3/4 oz (50g)
    Small 1 1/2 oz (43g)
    Peewee 1 1/4 oz (35g)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.3 American Liquid Measures

    1 liquid pint 473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
    1 dry pint 551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
    1 cup 237 ml ( 8 fl oz)
    1 tablespoon 15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
    1 fluid ounce 30 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.4 British Liquid Measures

    1 pint 568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
    1 breakfast cup ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
    1 tea cup 1/3 pint
    1 tablespoon 15 ml
    1 dessertspoon 10 ml
    1 teaspoon 5 ml 1/3 tablespoon

    And from
    "Mastering the art of French cooking". Penguin UK, issue 1961
    UK UK oz Metric ml US oz

    1 quart 40 1140 38.5
    1 pint 20 570
    1 cup 10
    1 gill 5
    1 fluid oz 1 28.4 0.96
    1 tbl 5/8 (1/16 cup) 17.8?
    1 dsp 1/3 10
    1 tsp 1/6 5

    ----------------------------------------
    2.5 British Short Cuts (S)

    Cheese (grated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Cocoa or chocolate powder 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Coconut (desiccated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Flour (unsifted) 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Sugar (castor/caster) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (granulated) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (icing) 1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
    Syrup (golden) 1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops

    From a post on rec.food.cooking by Andrew Nicholson

    BTU - British Thermal Unit

    BTU x 1054 = Joules
    Watts x Seconds = Joules

    BTU = Watts x (Seconds/1054) = Watts x 3.415

    Gas Cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 BTU up
    to 12,000 BTU.

    Electric Cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts.

    To help you compare gas burners to electric elements:

    BTU Watts
    ------- ---------
    100 35
    200 70 <- gas burners lowest setting
    3400 1000
    6500 1900
    8000 2300 <- most electric tops stop here
    10000 2900
    12000 3500

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7 General Conversion Tables

    Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
    (mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements

    standard cup tablespoon teaspoon

    Canada 250ml 15ml 5ml
    Australia 250ml ** 20ml ** 5ml
    New Zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml
    UK 250ml 15ml 5ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.2 Weight

    1 ounce = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
    1 pound = 454 g
    1 kg = 2.2 pounds

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements

    1 litre = 1.057 quarts
    2.1 pints
    1 quart = 0.95 litre
    1 gallon= 3.8 litres
    1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
    1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
    1/3 " = 0.8 dl = 78 ml
    1/2 " = 1.2 dl = 120 ml
    2/3 " = 1.6 dl = 160 ml
    3/4 " = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
    7/8 " = 2.1 dl = 210 ml
    1 cup = 2.4 dl = 240 ml
    1 dl = 2/5 cup
    = 6 to 7 tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous

    1 UK pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
    1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz.

    a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is
    1/2 cup US.
    each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in
    US recipes weighs about 50 g.
    there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

    Gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form. The
    following is from a post by Sophie Laplante.

    It looks like there are different size sheets, and different size
    packets (US vs Europe). So the only way to go is to convert by weight.
    In France, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the UK
    it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the US.

    One Knox powdered gelatine envelope (US) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams.

    1 (US) envelope = 7 g,
    = 7 1-gram sheets,
    = 4 1.66-gram sheets,
    = 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets.

    1 (Europe) envelope = 11 g
    = 11 1-gram sheets,
    = 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets
    = 5 2-gram sheets

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart

    This chart was once posted by T. Terrell Banks who got it from a now
    forgotten source. It was then preserved on William Chuang's Web site.

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- allspice 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 almonds, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 almonds, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 anchovies 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 apples, dried 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 apples, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 apricots, dried 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 arrowroot 0.95 1.05 4.8 14.3 27 225 2.0 4.4 bacon fat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking powder 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking soda 0.87 1.15 4.3 13.0 24 205 2.2 4.9 bamboo shoots 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 bananas, mashed 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 bananas, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 barley, uncooked 0.78 1.28 3.9 11.8 22 185 2.5 5.4 basil, dried 0.11 9.44 0.5 1.6 3 25 18.1 40.0 beans, dried 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 beef, cooked 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 beef, raw 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 biscuit mix (Bisquick) 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 blue corn meal 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 bran, unsifted 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 brazil nuts, whole 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 bread crumbs, fresh 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 bread crumbs, packaged 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 buckwheat groats 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 butter 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3

    [continued in next message]

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  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Tue Oct 20 22:17:55 2015
    XPost: rec.food.cooking, rec.answers, news.answers

    Archive-name: cooking/faq
    Maintained-by: Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    LAST UPDATED 20 July, 2013

    - Capers (section 3)

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------- |Copyright Victor Sack 2003-2015, Copyright Mary Frye and Victor |
    |Sack 1999-2003, Copyright Amy Gale 1993-1999, Copyright Cindy | |Kandolf 1992-1993. All Rights Reserved. Portions Copyright by |
    |their particular authors. |
    | |
    |This FAQ may be cited as "The rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file|
    |as of <date>, available in rtfm.mit.edu FAQ archives as /cooking/faq" |
    | | |Permission to reproduce this document, or any whole section or | |substantial part (unless it was you who wrote it!) for profit is | |explicitly not granted. Permission to distribute free of charge or |
    |with charges only to cover the cost of reproduction is granted, | |provided credits remain intact. This paragraph and the two above |
    |must also be included, and the same restrictions apply to subsequent |
    |use of the material. |
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    An easier-to-navigate frames version of the FAQ is available at http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/rfc_faq.html

    Welcome to the rec.food.cooking FAQ list and conversion helper!

    The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different
    countries communicate with one another. The problem is that
    measurements and terms for food vary from country to country,
    even if both countries speak English.

    However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list.
    You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. Try
    not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the
    product. If you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication
    of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume.

    A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery
    store is called a kiwi fruit. Whoever said "A pint's a pound the world
    around" must have believed the US was on another planet. And cast iron
    pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion!

    If you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read
    the guides to the Net and the Net etiquette which are posted to news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions regularly.
    They are also available via anonymous FTP from ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/announce/newusers/
    or from
    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/newusers/questions/.
    In particular, you are strongly encouraged to read the following
    postings:

    What is Usenet?
    <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/what-is/part1/>

    A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/primer/part1>

    Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/faq/part1/>

    Rules for posting to Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Hints on writing style for Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/writing-style/part1/>

    Advertising on Usenet: How To Do It, How Not To Do It <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/advertising/how-to/part1/>

    How To Find the Right Place To Post <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/finding-groups/general>

    The moderators of news.newusers.questions maintain an excellent Web site
    with helpful links to basic Usenet information. The site is at http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/.

    The traditionally accepted quoting style is discussed at <http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/nquote.shtml>.

    Another excellent introduction to Usenet is available from <http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_6.html>.

    You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as
    know about smileys, followups and when to reply by email to postings.

    This FAQ is currently posted to rec.food.cooking, news.answers,
    rec.answers and rec.food.recipes. All posts to news.answers are
    archived, and it is possible to retrieve the last posted copy via
    anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/rec.food.cooking. Those
    without FTP access should send e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with
    "send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the body to find out how
    to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

    This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, and has been extended
    and maintained by Amy Gale since 1993. In August 1999, Maryf and Victor
    Sack have taken over the FAQ maintaining. In July 2003, Victor Sack
    became the sole maintainer. The FAQ has always benefited from
    contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. Credits appear at
    the end.

    Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then
    the section number. This should make searching for a specific section
    easy.

    Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have
    many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it,
    and see.

    Comments, corrections and changes to:
    Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    ----------------------------------------
    List of Answers

    1 Substitutions and Equivalents
    1.1 Flours
    1.2 Leavening Agents
    1.3 Dairy Products
    1.4 Starches
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners
    1.6 Fats
    1.7 Chocolates
    1.8 Meats
    1.9 Salt
    2 US/UK/metric conversions
    2.1 Oven temperatures
    2.2 Food equivalencies
    2.2.1 Flours
    2.2.2 Cereals
    2.2.3 Sugars
    2.2.4 Fats and Cheeses
    2.2.5 Vegetables and Fruit
    2.2.6 Dried Fruit and Nuts
    2.2.7 Preserves
    2.2.8 Egg sizes
    2.3 American liquid measures
    2.4 British liquid measures
    2.5 British short cuts
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops
    2.7 General Conversion Tables
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements
    2.7.2 Weight
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions
    2.8.1 Metric Cups
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons
    2.9 Catties
    2.10 Some Old Measurements
    2.11 Authorities
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms
    4 Cooking Methods
    4.1 Poaching
    4.2 Frying
    4.3 Sauting (and deglazing)
    4.4 Broiling
    4.5 Caramelising (of onions)
    4.6 Braising
    4.7 Cooking with alcohol
    4.8 Roasting
    5 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment
    5.1 Woks
    5.2 Cast Iron
    6 History and Lore of rec.food.cooking
    6.1 Origins of rec.food.cooking
    6.2 Some Higlights in the Life of rec.food.cooking
    6.3 What's all this about xxxx?
    7 This has come up once too often
    8 Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
    8.1 Recipe archives
    8.2 Other cooking/food sites
    9 Food newsgroups and mailing lists
    9.1 rec.food.cooking
    9.2 rec.food.recipes
    9.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.restaurants
    9.4 rec.food.veg
    9.5 rec.food.veg.cooking
    9.6 rec.food.preserving
    9.7 also...
    9.8 mailing lists
    10 Other culinary FAQs
    10.1 Foods
    10.2 Beverages
    10.3 Religion, lifestyle and special diets
    10.4 Miscellaneous
    10.5 Humour
    11 "Unofficial" rec.food.cooking Web site
    12 Sources
    12.1 Contributors
    12.2 Bibliography

    ----------------------------------------
    1 Substitutions and Equivalents

    This section contains information on where substitutions can be made,
    and what they can be made with.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.1 Flours

    US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one
    another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is
    not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour
    and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.

    Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2
    teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. Some brands in some regions don't
    contain salt.

    US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.2 Leavening agents

    Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic
    ingredients to work. Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered
    acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.3 Dairy Products

    Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are
    thick and a weird colour... but are not, as I thought when I was small,
    the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed
    with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but
    this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons
    dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup
    granulated sugar. If you're not sure whether it is available in your
    market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "Good Luck"
    is apparently a common brand in North America.

    If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour
    milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of
    vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't
    stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

    The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
    (UK) (US)
    Clotted Cream 55%
    Double Cream 48%
    Heavy Cream 36%
    Whipping Cream 35% 30%
    Whipped Cream 35%
    Single Cream 18% (=Light Cream)
    Half Cream 12% (=Half and Half*)

    * Half and Half has only 10% butterfat in British Columbia.

    For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3.

    Quark (aka quarg) [7]
    A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream,
    Quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat. Though the calories
    are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than
    that of lowfat sour cream. It has a milder flavour and richer texture
    than lowfat yoghurt. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to
    top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes
    including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.4 Starches

    UK cornflour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its
    name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It
    often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

    In the US, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal. If in doubt about
    which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it
    to you! A couple of rules of thumb:
    - in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch
    - as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground
    cornmeal

    Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour!
    What one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to
    cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

    Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be
    used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.

    If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount
    of all-purpose/plain flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it
    to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners

    UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.
    There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the
    same as UK castor/caster sugar. It is called "berry sugar" in British Columbia. Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but I've got reports of times this
    didn't work so well! As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the
    substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

    (US) Confectioner's sugar is (UK/Aust/NZ) icing sugar. Sometimes these
    are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch).
    This can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan.

    Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden)
    syrup can be substituted.

    Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. Light corn syrup is
    just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. Some people have
    substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found
    it successful. A common US brand is Karo.

    Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane
    sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight
    acidic, metallic component. Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in rec.food.cooking, the New Zealand brand name is Chelsea.

    If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2
    parts sugar, 1 part water. This could be messy. You may want to thin
    it out with water. Again, you may want to try this out on your own
    before making something for a special occasion.

    Black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.6 Fats

    Shortening is any fat used to make pastry short.
    A popular brand name is Crisco, solid white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil, and many people call all shortening Crisco. It is
    common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe.
    In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute butter or
    margarine for Crisco. The result will have a slightly different
    texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say, chocolate
    chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). Sometimes this doesn't work
    too well. Not to sound like a broken record but - try it out before an important occasion.

    Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and
    used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and
    left to set.

    Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it
    makes very flaky pastry.

    Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter
    and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil.
    Corn and peanut oils are both good.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.7 Chocolates

    If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three
    tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat
    (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

    US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the
    darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also
    called bittersweet). What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called
    milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is
    the US dark or UK plain. "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term
    for high quality plain chocolate.

    Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark,"
    "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be
    minor variations on a theme.

    Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates,
    because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.8 Meats

    If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use Cornish game hens

    ----------------------------------------
    1.9 Salt

    There are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt.
    They are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride. Table
    salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea. Sea salt
    is extracted from evaporated sea water.

    From these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing
    somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use. Some of
    them are listed below.

    - Table salt. It is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt)
    and often contains anti-caking agents.

    - Kosher salt. Called so, because it is used for koshering purposes,
    i.e., drawing blood from meat. It is a coarse salt which generally
    contains no additives. Because of the large size of the crystals, about
    twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste
    intensity as would be needed using regular table salt. Many people
    prefer it to the regular table salt.

    - Pickling salt. It is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and
    canning. Like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as
    anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine.

    - Sel gris. Grey sea salt. This kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining various minerals. Produced near the town of Gurande in Brittany,
    France. It is said to smell of the sea. Generally used for seasoning
    already cooked dishes.

    - Fleur de sel. A very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but creamy-white in colour. Harvested from the thin white film that forms
    on the surface of the salt marshes in Brittany. Said to be prized by
    some French chefs. Some other people consider it a marketing gimmick.
    Also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Indian black salt (kala namak). Brown-to-black in colour, it has a
    smoky, sulphuric flavour. Used in some Indian dishes.

    - Hawaiian alaea salt. It takes its name and a reddish colour from the
    red clay (alaea) found along the shores. It is also generally used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Rock salt. Greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing
    many minerals and impurities. Supposed to be inedible, it is used in
    ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads.

    ----------------------------------------
    2 US/UK/metric conversions

    Some of these tables were combined from various sources by Andrew
    Mossberg aem(at)symcor.com, whose sources included Caroline Knight cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com, Fruitbat and the New York City Library Desk Reference. Other tables were compiled from a variety of sources.
    Corrections and additions welcomed!

    ----------------------------------------
    2.1 Oven Temperatures

    An approximate conversion chart(P):-

    Electric Gas mark Description

    Fahrenheit Celsius

    225F 110C 1/4 Very cool/very slow
    250F 130C 1/2
    275F 140C 1 cool
    300F 150C 2
    325F 170C 3 very moderate
    350F 180C 4 moderate
    375F 190C 5
    400F 200C 6 moderately hot
    425F 220C 7 hot
    450F 230C 8
    475F 240C 9 very hot

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2 Food Equivalencies

    Sometimes the sources did not agree... I've given both:-

    British measure American equivalent

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.1 Flours

    flour - white plain/strong/ sifted flour - all-purpose/
    self-raising/unbleached unbleached white
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    5 oz(K)
    wholemeal/stoneground whole wheat
    6 oz(K) 1 cup
    cornflour cornstarch
    4 1/2 oz (P) 1 cup
    5.3 oz (K)
    yellow corn meal/polenta coarse corn meal/polenta
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    rye flour rye flour
    6 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.2 Cereals

    pearl barley pearl barley
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
    berries
    7 oz(K) 1 cup
    semolina/ground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/
    cake crumbs cake crumbs
    2 oz(P) 1 cup
    dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    porridge oats rolled oats
    3 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.3 Sugars

    light/dark soft brown sugar light/dark brown sugar
    8 oz(P) 1 cup (firmly packed)
    castor/caster/granulated sugar granulated sugar
    7 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup
    icing sugar sifted confectioners' sugar
    4 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.4 Fats and cheeses

    butter, margarine, cooking butter, shortening, lard,
    fat, lard, dripping drippings - solid or melted
    1 oz(P) 2 tablespoons
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    grated cheese - cheddar type grated cheese - cheddar type
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    1 lb(K) 4 - 5 cups (packed)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.5 Vegetables and fruit

    onion onion
    1 small to med 1 cup chopped
    shelled peas shelled peas
    4 oz(P) 3/4 cup
    cooked sweet corn cooked sweet corn
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    celery celery
    4 sticks 1 cup (chopped)
    chopped tomatoes chopped tomatoes
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    button mushrooms button mushrooms
    3-4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped pickled beetroot chopped pickled beetroot
    2 oz(P) 1/3 cup
    black/redcurrants/bilberries black/redcurrants/bilberries
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    raspberries/strawberries raspberries/strawberries
    5 oz(P) 1 cup

    Dried beans:
    black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
    white white
    3 1/2 oz(K) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.6 Dried fruit and nuts, etc.

    currants/sultanas/raisins/ currants/sultanas/raisins/
    chopped candied peel chopped candied peel
    5-6 oz(P) 1 cup
    2 oz(K - raisins) 1/3 cup
    glace cherries candied cherries
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    sesame seeds sesame seeds
    3 1/2 oz 3/4 cup
    whole shelled almonds whole shelled almonds
    5 oz(P) 1 cup
    ground almonds ground almonds
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped nuts chopped nuts
    2 oz(K) 1/3 to 1/2 cup

    Nut butters:
    peanut/almond/cashew etc. peanut/almond/cashew etc.
    8 oz(K) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.7 Preserves

    clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/
    molasses/black treacle molasses/black treacle
    12 oz(P) 1 cup
    maple/corn syrup maple/corn syrup
    11 oz(P) 1 cup
    jam/marmalade/jelly jam/marmalade/jelly
    5-6 oz(P) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.8 Egg sizes

    According to the BEIS (British Egg Information Service) Web site, eggs
    in the UK are now sold in four different sizes: Small, Medium, Large and
    Very Large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7).

    UK egg sizes

    New Size Weight Old Size

    Very Large 73g +over Size 0
    Size 1

    Large 63 - 73g Size 1
    Size 2
    Size 3

    Medium 53 - 63g Size 3
    Size 4
    Size 5

    Small 53g +under Size 5
    Size 6
    Size 7

    US egg sizes

    Egg sizes Average weight

    Jumbo 2 1/2 oz (71g)
    Extra-large 2 1/4 oz (64g)
    Large 2 oz (57g)
    Medium 1 3/4 oz (50g)
    Small 1 1/2 oz (43g)
    Peewee 1 1/4 oz (35g)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.3 American Liquid Measures

    1 liquid pint 473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
    1 dry pint 551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
    1 cup 237 ml ( 8 fl oz)
    1 tablespoon 15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
    1 fluid ounce 30 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.4 British Liquid Measures

    1 pint 568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
    1 breakfast cup ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
    1 tea cup 1/3 pint
    1 tablespoon 15 ml
    1 dessertspoon 10 ml
    1 teaspoon 5 ml 1/3 tablespoon

    And from
    "Mastering the art of French cooking". Penguin UK, issue 1961
    UK UK oz Metric ml US oz

    1 quart 40 1140 38.5
    1 pint 20 570
    1 cup 10
    1 gill 5
    1 fluid oz 1 28.4 0.96
    1 tbl 5/8 (1/16 cup) 17.8?
    1 dsp 1/3 10
    1 tsp 1/6 5

    ----------------------------------------
    2.5 British Short Cuts (S)

    Cheese (grated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Cocoa or chocolate powder 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Coconut (desiccated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Flour (unsifted) 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Sugar (castor/caster) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (granulated) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (icing) 1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
    Syrup (golden) 1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops

    From a post on rec.food.cooking by Andrew Nicholson

    BTU - British Thermal Unit

    BTU x 1054 = Joules
    Watts x Seconds = Joules

    BTU = Watts x (Seconds/1054) = Watts x 3.415

    Gas Cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 BTU up
    to 12,000 BTU.

    Electric Cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts.

    To help you compare gas burners to electric elements:

    BTU Watts
    ------- ---------
    100 35
    200 70 <- gas burners lowest setting
    3400 1000
    6500 1900
    8000 2300 <- most electric tops stop here
    10000 2900
    12000 3500

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7 General Conversion Tables

    Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
    (mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements

    standard cup tablespoon teaspoon

    Canada 250ml 15ml 5ml
    Australia 250ml ** 20ml ** 5ml
    New Zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml
    UK 250ml 15ml 5ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.2 Weight

    1 ounce = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
    1 pound = 454 g
    1 kg = 2.2 pounds

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements

    1 litre = 1.057 quarts
    2.1 pints
    1 quart = 0.95 litre
    1 gallon= 3.8 litres
    1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
    1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
    1/3 " = 0.8 dl = 78 ml
    1/2 " = 1.2 dl = 120 ml
    2/3 " = 1.6 dl = 160 ml
    3/4 " = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
    7/8 " = 2.1 dl = 210 ml
    1 cup = 2.4 dl = 240 ml
    1 dl = 2/5 cup
    = 6 to 7 tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous

    1 UK pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
    1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz.

    a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is
    1/2 cup US.
    each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in
    US recipes weighs about 50 g.
    there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

    Gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form. The
    following is from a post by Sophie Laplante.

    It looks like there are different size sheets, and different size
    packets (US vs Europe). So the only way to go is to convert by weight.
    In France, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the UK
    it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the US.

    One Knox powdered gelatine envelope (US) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams.

    1 (US) envelope = 7 g,
    = 7 1-gram sheets,
    = 4 1.66-gram sheets,
    = 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets.

    1 (Europe) envelope = 11 g
    = 11 1-gram sheets,
    = 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets
    = 5 2-gram sheets

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart

    This chart was once posted by T. Terrell Banks who got it from a now
    forgotten source. It was then preserved on William Chuang's Web site.

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- allspice 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 almonds, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 almonds, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 anchovies 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 apples, dried 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 apples, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 apricots, dried 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 arrowroot 0.95 1.05 4.8 14.3 27 225 2.0 4.4 bacon fat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking powder 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking soda 0.87 1.15 4.3 13.0 24 205 2.2 4.9 bamboo shoots 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 bananas, mashed 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 bananas, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 barley, uncooked 0.78 1.28 3.9 11.8 22 185 2.5 5.4 basil, dried 0.11 9.44 0.5 1.6 3 25 18.1 40.0 beans, dried 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 beef, cooked 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 beef, raw 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 biscuit mix (Bisquick) 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 blue corn meal 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 bran, unsifted 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 brazil nuts, whole 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 bread crumbs, fresh 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 bread crumbs, packaged 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 buckwheat groats 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 butter 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3

    [continued in next message]

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  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Fri Nov 20 20:08:44 2015
    XPost: rec.food.cooking, rec.answers, news.answers

    Archive-name: cooking/faq
    Maintained-by: Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    LAST UPDATED 20 July, 2013

    - Capers (section 3)

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------- |Copyright Victor Sack 2003-2015, Copyright Mary Frye and Victor |
    |Sack 1999-2003, Copyright Amy Gale 1993-1999, Copyright Cindy | |Kandolf 1992-1993. All Rights Reserved. Portions Copyright by |
    |their particular authors. |
    | |
    |This FAQ may be cited as "The rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file|
    |as of <date>, available in rtfm.mit.edu FAQ archives as /cooking/faq" |
    | | |Permission to reproduce this document, or any whole section or | |substantial part (unless it was you who wrote it!) for profit is | |explicitly not granted. Permission to distribute free of charge or |
    |with charges only to cover the cost of reproduction is granted, | |provided credits remain intact. This paragraph and the two above |
    |must also be included, and the same restrictions apply to subsequent |
    |use of the material. |
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    An easier-to-navigate frames version of the FAQ is available at http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/rfc_faq.html

    Welcome to the rec.food.cooking FAQ list and conversion helper!

    The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different
    countries communicate with one another. The problem is that
    measurements and terms for food vary from country to country,
    even if both countries speak English.

    However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list.
    You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. Try
    not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the
    product. If you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication
    of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume.

    A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery
    store is called a kiwi fruit. Whoever said "A pint's a pound the world
    around" must have believed the US was on another planet. And cast iron
    pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion!

    If you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read
    the guides to the Net and the Net etiquette which are posted to news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions regularly.
    They are also available via anonymous FTP from ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/announce/newusers/
    or from
    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/newusers/questions/.
    In particular, you are strongly encouraged to read the following
    postings:

    What is Usenet?
    <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/what-is/part1/>

    A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/primer/part1>

    Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/faq/part1/>

    Rules for posting to Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Hints on writing style for Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/writing-style/part1/>

    Advertising on Usenet: How To Do It, How Not To Do It <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/advertising/how-to/part1/>

    How To Find the Right Place To Post <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/finding-groups/general>

    The moderators of news.newusers.questions maintain an excellent Web site
    with helpful links to basic Usenet information. The site is at http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/.

    The traditionally accepted quoting style is discussed at <http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/nquote.shtml>.

    Another excellent introduction to Usenet is available from <http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_6.html>.

    You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as
    know about smileys, followups and when to reply by email to postings.

    This FAQ is currently posted to rec.food.cooking, news.answers,
    rec.answers and rec.food.recipes. All posts to news.answers are
    archived, and it is possible to retrieve the last posted copy via
    anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/rec.food.cooking. Those
    without FTP access should send e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with
    "send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the body to find out how
    to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

    This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, and has been extended
    and maintained by Amy Gale since 1993. In August 1999, Maryf and Victor
    Sack have taken over the FAQ maintaining. In July 2003, Victor Sack
    became the sole maintainer. The FAQ has always benefited from
    contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. Credits appear at
    the end.

    Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then
    the section number. This should make searching for a specific section
    easy.

    Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have
    many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it,
    and see.

    Comments, corrections and changes to:
    Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    ----------------------------------------
    List of Answers

    1 Substitutions and Equivalents
    1.1 Flours
    1.2 Leavening Agents
    1.3 Dairy Products
    1.4 Starches
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners
    1.6 Fats
    1.7 Chocolates
    1.8 Meats
    1.9 Salt
    2 US/UK/metric conversions
    2.1 Oven temperatures
    2.2 Food equivalencies
    2.2.1 Flours
    2.2.2 Cereals
    2.2.3 Sugars
    2.2.4 Fats and Cheeses
    2.2.5 Vegetables and Fruit
    2.2.6 Dried Fruit and Nuts
    2.2.7 Preserves
    2.2.8 Egg sizes
    2.3 American liquid measures
    2.4 British liquid measures
    2.5 British short cuts
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops
    2.7 General Conversion Tables
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements
    2.7.2 Weight
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions
    2.8.1 Metric Cups
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons
    2.9 Catties
    2.10 Some Old Measurements
    2.11 Authorities
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms
    4 Cooking Methods
    4.1 Poaching
    4.2 Frying
    4.3 Sauting (and deglazing)
    4.4 Broiling
    4.5 Caramelising (of onions)
    4.6 Braising
    4.7 Cooking with alcohol
    4.8 Roasting
    5 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment
    5.1 Woks
    5.2 Cast Iron
    6 History and Lore of rec.food.cooking
    6.1 Origins of rec.food.cooking
    6.2 Some Higlights in the Life of rec.food.cooking
    6.3 What's all this about xxxx?
    7 This has come up once too often
    8 Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
    8.1 Recipe archives
    8.2 Other cooking/food sites
    9 Food newsgroups and mailing lists
    9.1 rec.food.cooking
    9.2 rec.food.recipes
    9.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.restaurants
    9.4 rec.food.veg
    9.5 rec.food.veg.cooking
    9.6 rec.food.preserving
    9.7 also...
    9.8 mailing lists
    10 Other culinary FAQs
    10.1 Foods
    10.2 Beverages
    10.3 Religion, lifestyle and special diets
    10.4 Miscellaneous
    10.5 Humour
    11 "Unofficial" rec.food.cooking Web site
    12 Sources
    12.1 Contributors
    12.2 Bibliography

    ----------------------------------------
    1 Substitutions and Equivalents

    This section contains information on where substitutions can be made,
    and what they can be made with.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.1 Flours

    US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one
    another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is
    not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour
    and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.

    Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2
    teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. Some brands in some regions don't
    contain salt.

    US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.2 Leavening agents

    Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic
    ingredients to work. Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered
    acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.3 Dairy Products

    Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are
    thick and a weird colour... but are not, as I thought when I was small,
    the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed
    with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but
    this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons
    dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup
    granulated sugar. If you're not sure whether it is available in your
    market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "Good Luck"
    is apparently a common brand in North America.

    If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour
    milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of
    vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't
    stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

    The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
    (UK) (US)
    Clotted Cream 55%
    Double Cream 48%
    Heavy Cream 36%
    Whipping Cream 35% 30%
    Whipped Cream 35%
    Single Cream 18% (=Light Cream)
    Half Cream 12% (=Half and Half*)

    * Half and Half has only 10% butterfat in British Columbia.

    For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3.

    Quark (aka quarg) [7]
    A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream,
    Quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat. Though the calories
    are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than
    that of lowfat sour cream. It has a milder flavour and richer texture
    than lowfat yoghurt. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to
    top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes
    including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.4 Starches

    UK cornflour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its
    name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It
    often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

    In the US, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal. If in doubt about
    which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it
    to you! A couple of rules of thumb:
    - in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch
    - as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground
    cornmeal

    Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour!
    What one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to
    cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

    Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be
    used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.

    If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount
    of all-purpose/plain flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it
    to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners

    UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.
    There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the
    same as UK castor/caster sugar. It is called "berry sugar" in British Columbia. Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but I've got reports of times this
    didn't work so well! As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the
    substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

    (US) Confectioner's sugar is (UK/Aust/NZ) icing sugar. Sometimes these
    are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch).
    This can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan.

    Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden)
    syrup can be substituted.

    Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. Light corn syrup is
    just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. Some people have
    substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found
    it successful. A common US brand is Karo.

    Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane
    sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight
    acidic, metallic component. Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in rec.food.cooking, the New Zealand brand name is Chelsea.

    If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2
    parts sugar, 1 part water. This could be messy. You may want to thin
    it out with water. Again, you may want to try this out on your own
    before making something for a special occasion.

    Black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.6 Fats

    Shortening is any fat used to make pastry short.
    A popular brand name is Crisco, solid white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil, and many people call all shortening Crisco. It is
    common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe.
    In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute butter or
    margarine for Crisco. The result will have a slightly different
    texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say, chocolate
    chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). Sometimes this doesn't work
    too well. Not to sound like a broken record but - try it out before an important occasion.

    Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and
    used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and
    left to set.

    Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it
    makes very flaky pastry.

    Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter
    and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil.
    Corn and peanut oils are both good.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.7 Chocolates

    If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three
    tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat
    (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

    US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the
    darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also
    called bittersweet). What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called
    milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is
    the US dark or UK plain. "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term
    for high quality plain chocolate.

    Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark,"
    "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be
    minor variations on a theme.

    Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates,
    because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.8 Meats

    If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use Cornish game hens

    ----------------------------------------
    1.9 Salt

    There are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt.
    They are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride. Table
    salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea. Sea salt
    is extracted from evaporated sea water.

    From these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing
    somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use. Some of
    them are listed below.

    - Table salt. It is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt)
    and often contains anti-caking agents.

    - Kosher salt. Called so, because it is used for koshering purposes,
    i.e., drawing blood from meat. It is a coarse salt which generally
    contains no additives. Because of the large size of the crystals, about
    twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste
    intensity as would be needed using regular table salt. Many people
    prefer it to the regular table salt.

    - Pickling salt. It is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and
    canning. Like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as
    anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine.

    - Sel gris. Grey sea salt. This kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining various minerals. Produced near the town of Gurande in Brittany,
    France. It is said to smell of the sea. Generally used for seasoning
    already cooked dishes.

    - Fleur de sel. A very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but creamy-white in colour. Harvested from the thin white film that forms
    on the surface of the salt marshes in Brittany. Said to be prized by
    some French chefs. Some other people consider it a marketing gimmick.
    Also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Indian black salt (kala namak). Brown-to-black in colour, it has a
    smoky, sulphuric flavour. Used in some Indian dishes.

    - Hawaiian alaea salt. It takes its name and a reddish colour from the
    red clay (alaea) found along the shores. It is also generally used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Rock salt. Greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing
    many minerals and impurities. Supposed to be inedible, it is used in
    ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads.

    ----------------------------------------
    2 US/UK/metric conversions

    Some of these tables were combined from various sources by Andrew
    Mossberg aem(at)symcor.com, whose sources included Caroline Knight cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com, Fruitbat and the New York City Library Desk Reference. Other tables were compiled from a variety of sources.
    Corrections and additions welcomed!

    ----------------------------------------
    2.1 Oven Temperatures

    An approximate conversion chart(P):-

    Electric Gas mark Description

    Fahrenheit Celsius

    225F 110C 1/4 Very cool/very slow
    250F 130C 1/2
    275F 140C 1 cool
    300F 150C 2
    325F 170C 3 very moderate
    350F 180C 4 moderate
    375F 190C 5
    400F 200C 6 moderately hot
    425F 220C 7 hot
    450F 230C 8
    475F 240C 9 very hot

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2 Food Equivalencies

    Sometimes the sources did not agree... I've given both:-

    British measure American equivalent

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.1 Flours

    flour - white plain/strong/ sifted flour - all-purpose/
    self-raising/unbleached unbleached white
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    5 oz(K)
    wholemeal/stoneground whole wheat
    6 oz(K) 1 cup
    cornflour cornstarch
    4 1/2 oz (P) 1 cup
    5.3 oz (K)
    yellow corn meal/polenta coarse corn meal/polenta
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    rye flour rye flour
    6 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.2 Cereals

    pearl barley pearl barley
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
    berries
    7 oz(K) 1 cup
    semolina/ground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/
    cake crumbs cake crumbs
    2 oz(P) 1 cup
    dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    porridge oats rolled oats
    3 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.3 Sugars

    light/dark soft brown sugar light/dark brown sugar
    8 oz(P) 1 cup (firmly packed)
    castor/caster/granulated sugar granulated sugar
    7 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup
    icing sugar sifted confectioners' sugar
    4 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.4 Fats and cheeses

    butter, margarine, cooking butter, shortening, lard,
    fat, lard, dripping drippings - solid or melted
    1 oz(P) 2 tablespoons
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    grated cheese - cheddar type grated cheese - cheddar type
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    1 lb(K) 4 - 5 cups (packed)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.5 Vegetables and fruit

    onion onion
    1 small to med 1 cup chopped
    shelled peas shelled peas
    4 oz(P) 3/4 cup
    cooked sweet corn cooked sweet corn
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    celery celery
    4 sticks 1 cup (chopped)
    chopped tomatoes chopped tomatoes
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    button mushrooms button mushrooms
    3-4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped pickled beetroot chopped pickled beetroot
    2 oz(P) 1/3 cup
    black/redcurrants/bilberries black/redcurrants/bilberries
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    raspberries/strawberries raspberries/strawberries
    5 oz(P) 1 cup

    Dried beans:
    black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
    white white
    3 1/2 oz(K) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.6 Dried fruit and nuts, etc.

    currants/sultanas/raisins/ currants/sultanas/raisins/
    chopped candied peel chopped candied peel
    5-6 oz(P) 1 cup
    2 oz(K - raisins) 1/3 cup
    glace cherries candied cherries
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    sesame seeds sesame seeds
    3 1/2 oz 3/4 cup
    whole shelled almonds whole shelled almonds
    5 oz(P) 1 cup
    ground almonds ground almonds
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped nuts chopped nuts
    2 oz(K) 1/3 to 1/2 cup

    Nut butters:
    peanut/almond/cashew etc. peanut/almond/cashew etc.
    8 oz(K) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.7 Preserves

    clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/
    molasses/black treacle molasses/black treacle
    12 oz(P) 1 cup
    maple/corn syrup maple/corn syrup
    11 oz(P) 1 cup
    jam/marmalade/jelly jam/marmalade/jelly
    5-6 oz(P) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.8 Egg sizes

    According to the BEIS (British Egg Information Service) Web site, eggs
    in the UK are now sold in four different sizes: Small, Medium, Large and
    Very Large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7).

    UK egg sizes

    New Size Weight Old Size

    Very Large 73g +over Size 0
    Size 1

    Large 63 - 73g Size 1
    Size 2
    Size 3

    Medium 53 - 63g Size 3
    Size 4
    Size 5

    Small 53g +under Size 5
    Size 6
    Size 7

    US egg sizes

    Egg sizes Average weight

    Jumbo 2 1/2 oz (71g)
    Extra-large 2 1/4 oz (64g)
    Large 2 oz (57g)
    Medium 1 3/4 oz (50g)
    Small 1 1/2 oz (43g)
    Peewee 1 1/4 oz (35g)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.3 American Liquid Measures

    1 liquid pint 473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
    1 dry pint 551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
    1 cup 237 ml ( 8 fl oz)
    1 tablespoon 15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
    1 fluid ounce 30 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.4 British Liquid Measures

    1 pint 568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
    1 breakfast cup ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
    1 tea cup 1/3 pint
    1 tablespoon 15 ml
    1 dessertspoon 10 ml
    1 teaspoon 5 ml 1/3 tablespoon

    And from
    "Mastering the art of French cooking". Penguin UK, issue 1961
    UK UK oz Metric ml US oz

    1 quart 40 1140 38.5
    1 pint 20 570
    1 cup 10
    1 gill 5
    1 fluid oz 1 28.4 0.96
    1 tbl 5/8 (1/16 cup) 17.8?
    1 dsp 1/3 10
    1 tsp 1/6 5

    ----------------------------------------
    2.5 British Short Cuts (S)

    Cheese (grated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Cocoa or chocolate powder 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Coconut (desiccated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Flour (unsifted) 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Sugar (castor/caster) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (granulated) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (icing) 1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
    Syrup (golden) 1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops

    From a post on rec.food.cooking by Andrew Nicholson

    BTU - British Thermal Unit

    BTU x 1054 = Joules
    Watts x Seconds = Joules

    BTU = Watts x (Seconds/1054) = Watts x 3.415

    Gas Cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 BTU up
    to 12,000 BTU.

    Electric Cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts.

    To help you compare gas burners to electric elements:

    BTU Watts
    ------- ---------
    100 35
    200 70 <- gas burners lowest setting
    3400 1000
    6500 1900
    8000 2300 <- most electric tops stop here
    10000 2900
    12000 3500

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7 General Conversion Tables

    Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
    (mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements

    standard cup tablespoon teaspoon

    Canada 250ml 15ml 5ml
    Australia 250ml ** 20ml ** 5ml
    New Zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml
    UK 250ml 15ml 5ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.2 Weight

    1 ounce = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
    1 pound = 454 g
    1 kg = 2.2 pounds

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements

    1 litre = 1.057 quarts
    2.1 pints
    1 quart = 0.95 litre
    1 gallon= 3.8 litres
    1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
    1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
    1/3 " = 0.8 dl = 78 ml
    1/2 " = 1.2 dl = 120 ml
    2/3 " = 1.6 dl = 160 ml
    3/4 " = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
    7/8 " = 2.1 dl = 210 ml
    1 cup = 2.4 dl = 240 ml
    1 dl = 2/5 cup
    = 6 to 7 tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous

    1 UK pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
    1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz.

    a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is
    1/2 cup US.
    each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in
    US recipes weighs about 50 g.
    there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

    Gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form. The
    following is from a post by Sophie Laplante.

    It looks like there are different size sheets, and different size
    packets (US vs Europe). So the only way to go is to convert by weight.
    In France, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the UK
    it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the US.

    One Knox powdered gelatine envelope (US) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams.

    1 (US) envelope = 7 g,
    = 7 1-gram sheets,
    = 4 1.66-gram sheets,
    = 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets.

    1 (Europe) envelope = 11 g
    = 11 1-gram sheets,
    = 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets
    = 5 2-gram sheets

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart

    This chart was once posted by T. Terrell Banks who got it from a now
    forgotten source. It was then preserved on William Chuang's Web site.

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- allspice 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 almonds, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 almonds, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 anchovies 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 apples, dried 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 apples, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 apricots, dried 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 arrowroot 0.95 1.05 4.8 14.3 27 225 2.0 4.4 bacon fat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking powder 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking soda 0.87 1.15 4.3 13.0 24 205 2.2 4.9 bamboo shoots 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 bananas, mashed 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 bananas, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 barley, uncooked 0.78 1.28 3.9 11.8 22 185 2.5 5.4 basil, dried 0.11 9.44 0.5 1.6 3 25 18.1 40.0 beans, dried 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 beef, cooked 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 beef, raw 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 biscuit mix (Bisquick) 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 blue corn meal 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 bran, unsifted 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 brazil nuts, whole 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 bread crumbs, fresh 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 bread crumbs, packaged 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 buckwheat groats 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 butter 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3

    [continued in next message]

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  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Sun Dec 20 22:56:50 2015
    XPost: rec.food.cooking, rec.answers, news.answers

    Archive-name: cooking/faq
    Maintained-by: Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    LAST UPDATED 20 July, 2013

    - Capers (section 3)

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------- |Copyright Victor Sack 2003-2015, Copyright Mary Frye and Victor |
    |Sack 1999-2003, Copyright Amy Gale 1993-1999, Copyright Cindy | |Kandolf 1992-1993. All Rights Reserved. Portions Copyright by |
    |their particular authors. |
    | |
    |This FAQ may be cited as "The rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file|
    |as of <date>, available in rtfm.mit.edu FAQ archives as /cooking/faq" |
    | | |Permission to reproduce this document, or any whole section or | |substantial part (unless it was you who wrote it!) for profit is | |explicitly not granted. Permission to distribute free of charge or |
    |with charges only to cover the cost of reproduction is granted, | |provided credits remain intact. This paragraph and the two above |
    |must also be included, and the same restrictions apply to subsequent |
    |use of the material. |
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    An easier-to-navigate frames version of the FAQ is available at http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/rfc_faq.html

    Welcome to the rec.food.cooking FAQ list and conversion helper!

    The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different
    countries communicate with one another. The problem is that
    measurements and terms for food vary from country to country,
    even if both countries speak English.

    However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list.
    You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. Try
    not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the
    product. If you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication
    of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume.

    A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery
    store is called a kiwi fruit. Whoever said "A pint's a pound the world
    around" must have believed the US was on another planet. And cast iron
    pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion!

    If you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read
    the guides to the Net and the Net etiquette which are posted to news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions regularly.
    They are also available via anonymous FTP from ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/announce/newusers/
    or from
    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/newusers/questions/.
    In particular, you are strongly encouraged to read the following
    postings:

    What is Usenet?
    <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/what-is/part1/>

    A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/primer/part1>

    Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/faq/part1/>

    Rules for posting to Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Hints on writing style for Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/writing-style/part1/>

    Advertising on Usenet: How To Do It, How Not To Do It <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/advertising/how-to/part1/>

    How To Find the Right Place To Post <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/finding-groups/general>

    The moderators of news.newusers.questions maintain an excellent Web site
    with helpful links to basic Usenet information. The site is at http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/.

    The traditionally accepted quoting style is discussed at <http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/nquote.shtml>.

    Another excellent introduction to Usenet is available from <http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_6.html>.

    You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as
    know about smileys, followups and when to reply by email to postings.

    This FAQ is currently posted to rec.food.cooking, news.answers,
    rec.answers and rec.food.recipes. All posts to news.answers are
    archived, and it is possible to retrieve the last posted copy via
    anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/rec.food.cooking. Those
    without FTP access should send e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with
    "send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the body to find out how
    to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

    This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, and has been extended
    and maintained by Amy Gale since 1993. In August 1999, Maryf and Victor
    Sack have taken over the FAQ maintaining. In July 2003, Victor Sack
    became the sole maintainer. The FAQ has always benefited from
    contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. Credits appear at
    the end.

    Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then
    the section number. This should make searching for a specific section
    easy.

    Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have
    many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it,
    and see.

    Comments, corrections and changes to:
    Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    ----------------------------------------
    List of Answers

    1 Substitutions and Equivalents
    1.1 Flours
    1.2 Leavening Agents
    1.3 Dairy Products
    1.4 Starches
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners
    1.6 Fats
    1.7 Chocolates
    1.8 Meats
    1.9 Salt
    2 US/UK/metric conversions
    2.1 Oven temperatures
    2.2 Food equivalencies
    2.2.1 Flours
    2.2.2 Cereals
    2.2.3 Sugars
    2.2.4 Fats and Cheeses
    2.2.5 Vegetables and Fruit
    2.2.6 Dried Fruit and Nuts
    2.2.7 Preserves
    2.2.8 Egg sizes
    2.3 American liquid measures
    2.4 British liquid measures
    2.5 British short cuts
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops
    2.7 General Conversion Tables
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements
    2.7.2 Weight
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions
    2.8.1 Metric Cups
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons
    2.9 Catties
    2.10 Some Old Measurements
    2.11 Authorities
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms
    4 Cooking Methods
    4.1 Poaching
    4.2 Frying
    4.3 Sauting (and deglazing)
    4.4 Broiling
    4.5 Caramelising (of onions)
    4.6 Braising
    4.7 Cooking with alcohol
    4.8 Roasting
    5 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment
    5.1 Woks
    5.2 Cast Iron
    6 History and Lore of rec.food.cooking
    6.1 Origins of rec.food.cooking
    6.2 Some Higlights in the Life of rec.food.cooking
    6.3 What's all this about xxxx?
    7 This has come up once too often
    8 Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
    8.1 Recipe archives
    8.2 Other cooking/food sites
    9 Food newsgroups and mailing lists
    9.1 rec.food.cooking
    9.2 rec.food.recipes
    9.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.restaurants
    9.4 rec.food.veg
    9.5 rec.food.veg.cooking
    9.6 rec.food.preserving
    9.7 also...
    9.8 mailing lists
    10 Other culinary FAQs
    10.1 Foods
    10.2 Beverages
    10.3 Religion, lifestyle and special diets
    10.4 Miscellaneous
    10.5 Humour
    11 "Unofficial" rec.food.cooking Web site
    12 Sources
    12.1 Contributors
    12.2 Bibliography

    ----------------------------------------
    1 Substitutions and Equivalents

    This section contains information on where substitutions can be made,
    and what they can be made with.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.1 Flours

    US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one
    another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is
    not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour
    and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.

    Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2
    teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. Some brands in some regions don't
    contain salt.

    US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.2 Leavening agents

    Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic
    ingredients to work. Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered
    acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.3 Dairy Products

    Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are
    thick and a weird colour... but are not, as I thought when I was small,
    the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed
    with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but
    this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons
    dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup
    granulated sugar. If you're not sure whether it is available in your
    market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "Good Luck"
    is apparently a common brand in North America.

    If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour
    milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of
    vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't
    stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

    The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
    (UK) (US)
    Clotted Cream 55%
    Double Cream 48%
    Heavy Cream 36%
    Whipping Cream 35% 30%
    Whipped Cream 35%
    Single Cream 18% (=Light Cream)
    Half Cream 12% (=Half and Half*)

    * Half and Half has only 10% butterfat in British Columbia.

    For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3.

    Quark (aka quarg) [7]
    A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream,
    Quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat. Though the calories
    are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than
    that of lowfat sour cream. It has a milder flavour and richer texture
    than lowfat yoghurt. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to
    top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes
    including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.4 Starches

    UK cornflour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its
    name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It
    often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

    In the US, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal. If in doubt about
    which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it
    to you! A couple of rules of thumb:
    - in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch
    - as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground
    cornmeal

    Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour!
    What one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to
    cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

    Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be
    used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.

    If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount
    of all-purpose/plain flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it
    to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners

    UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.
    There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the
    same as UK castor/caster sugar. It is called "berry sugar" in British Columbia. Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but I've got reports of times this
    didn't work so well! As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the
    substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

    (US) Confectioner's sugar is (UK/Aust/NZ) icing sugar. Sometimes these
    are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch).
    This can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan.

    Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden)
    syrup can be substituted.

    Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. Light corn syrup is
    just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. Some people have
    substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found
    it successful. A common US brand is Karo.

    Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane
    sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight
    acidic, metallic component. Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in rec.food.cooking, the New Zealand brand name is Chelsea.

    If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2
    parts sugar, 1 part water. This could be messy. You may want to thin
    it out with water. Again, you may want to try this out on your own
    before making something for a special occasion.

    Black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.6 Fats

    Shortening is any fat used to make pastry short.
    A popular brand name is Crisco, solid white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil, and many people call all shortening Crisco. It is
    common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe.
    In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute butter or
    margarine for Crisco. The result will have a slightly different
    texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say, chocolate
    chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). Sometimes this doesn't work
    too well. Not to sound like a broken record but - try it out before an important occasion.

    Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and
    used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and
    left to set.

    Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it
    makes very flaky pastry.

    Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter
    and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil.
    Corn and peanut oils are both good.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.7 Chocolates

    If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three
    tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat
    (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

    US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the
    darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also
    called bittersweet). What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called
    milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is
    the US dark or UK plain. "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term
    for high quality plain chocolate.

    Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark,"
    "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be
    minor variations on a theme.

    Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates,
    because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.8 Meats

    If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use Cornish game hens

    ----------------------------------------
    1.9 Salt

    There are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt.
    They are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride. Table
    salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea. Sea salt
    is extracted from evaporated sea water.

    From these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing
    somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use. Some of
    them are listed below.

    - Table salt. It is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt)
    and often contains anti-caking agents.

    - Kosher salt. Called so, because it is used for koshering purposes,
    i.e., drawing blood from meat. It is a coarse salt which generally
    contains no additives. Because of the large size of the crystals, about
    twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste
    intensity as would be needed using regular table salt. Many people
    prefer it to the regular table salt.

    - Pickling salt. It is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and
    canning. Like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as
    anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine.

    - Sel gris. Grey sea salt. This kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining various minerals. Produced near the town of Gurande in Brittany,
    France. It is said to smell of the sea. Generally used for seasoning
    already cooked dishes.

    - Fleur de sel. A very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but creamy-white in colour. Harvested from the thin white film that forms
    on the surface of the salt marshes in Brittany. Said to be prized by
    some French chefs. Some other people consider it a marketing gimmick.
    Also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Indian black salt (kala namak). Brown-to-black in colour, it has a
    smoky, sulphuric flavour. Used in some Indian dishes.

    - Hawaiian alaea salt. It takes its name and a reddish colour from the
    red clay (alaea) found along the shores. It is also generally used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Rock salt. Greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing
    many minerals and impurities. Supposed to be inedible, it is used in
    ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads.

    ----------------------------------------
    2 US/UK/metric conversions

    Some of these tables were combined from various sources by Andrew
    Mossberg aem(at)symcor.com, whose sources included Caroline Knight cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com, Fruitbat and the New York City Library Desk Reference. Other tables were compiled from a variety of sources.
    Corrections and additions welcomed!

    ----------------------------------------
    2.1 Oven Temperatures

    An approximate conversion chart(P):-

    Electric Gas mark Description

    Fahrenheit Celsius

    225F 110C 1/4 Very cool/very slow
    250F 130C 1/2
    275F 140C 1 cool
    300F 150C 2
    325F 170C 3 very moderate
    350F 180C 4 moderate
    375F 190C 5
    400F 200C 6 moderately hot
    425F 220C 7 hot
    450F 230C 8
    475F 240C 9 very hot

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2 Food Equivalencies

    Sometimes the sources did not agree... I've given both:-

    British measure American equivalent

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.1 Flours

    flour - white plain/strong/ sifted flour - all-purpose/
    self-raising/unbleached unbleached white
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    5 oz(K)
    wholemeal/stoneground whole wheat
    6 oz(K) 1 cup
    cornflour cornstarch
    4 1/2 oz (P) 1 cup
    5.3 oz (K)
    yellow corn meal/polenta coarse corn meal/polenta
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    rye flour rye flour
    6 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.2 Cereals

    pearl barley pearl barley
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
    berries
    7 oz(K) 1 cup
    semolina/ground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/
    cake crumbs cake crumbs
    2 oz(P) 1 cup
    dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    porridge oats rolled oats
    3 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.3 Sugars

    light/dark soft brown sugar light/dark brown sugar
    8 oz(P) 1 cup (firmly packed)
    castor/caster/granulated sugar granulated sugar
    7 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup
    icing sugar sifted confectioners' sugar
    4 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.4 Fats and cheeses

    butter, margarine, cooking butter, shortening, lard,
    fat, lard, dripping drippings - solid or melted
    1 oz(P) 2 tablespoons
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    grated cheese - cheddar type grated cheese - cheddar type
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    1 lb(K) 4 - 5 cups (packed)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.5 Vegetables and fruit

    onion onion
    1 small to med 1 cup chopped
    shelled peas shelled peas
    4 oz(P) 3/4 cup
    cooked sweet corn cooked sweet corn
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    celery celery
    4 sticks 1 cup (chopped)
    chopped tomatoes chopped tomatoes
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    button mushrooms button mushrooms
    3-4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped pickled beetroot chopped pickled beetroot
    2 oz(P) 1/3 cup
    black/redcurrants/bilberries black/redcurrants/bilberries
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    raspberries/strawberries raspberries/strawberries
    5 oz(P) 1 cup

    Dried beans:
    black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
    white white
    3 1/2 oz(K) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.6 Dried fruit and nuts, etc.

    currants/sultanas/raisins/ currants/sultanas/raisins/
    chopped candied peel chopped candied peel
    5-6 oz(P) 1 cup
    2 oz(K - raisins) 1/3 cup
    glace cherries candied cherries
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    sesame seeds sesame seeds
    3 1/2 oz 3/4 cup
    whole shelled almonds whole shelled almonds
    5 oz(P) 1 cup
    ground almonds ground almonds
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped nuts chopped nuts
    2 oz(K) 1/3 to 1/2 cup

    Nut butters:
    peanut/almond/cashew etc. peanut/almond/cashew etc.
    8 oz(K) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.7 Preserves

    clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/
    molasses/black treacle molasses/black treacle
    12 oz(P) 1 cup
    maple/corn syrup maple/corn syrup
    11 oz(P) 1 cup
    jam/marmalade/jelly jam/marmalade/jelly
    5-6 oz(P) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.8 Egg sizes

    According to the BEIS (British Egg Information Service) Web site, eggs
    in the UK are now sold in four different sizes: Small, Medium, Large and
    Very Large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7).

    UK egg sizes

    New Size Weight Old Size

    Very Large 73g +over Size 0
    Size 1

    Large 63 - 73g Size 1
    Size 2
    Size 3

    Medium 53 - 63g Size 3
    Size 4
    Size 5

    Small 53g +under Size 5
    Size 6
    Size 7

    US egg sizes

    Egg sizes Average weight

    Jumbo 2 1/2 oz (71g)
    Extra-large 2 1/4 oz (64g)
    Large 2 oz (57g)
    Medium 1 3/4 oz (50g)
    Small 1 1/2 oz (43g)
    Peewee 1 1/4 oz (35g)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.3 American Liquid Measures

    1 liquid pint 473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
    1 dry pint 551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
    1 cup 237 ml ( 8 fl oz)
    1 tablespoon 15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
    1 fluid ounce 30 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.4 British Liquid Measures

    1 pint 568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
    1 breakfast cup ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
    1 tea cup 1/3 pint
    1 tablespoon 15 ml
    1 dessertspoon 10 ml
    1 teaspoon 5 ml 1/3 tablespoon

    And from
    "Mastering the art of French cooking". Penguin UK, issue 1961
    UK UK oz Metric ml US oz

    1 quart 40 1140 38.5
    1 pint 20 570
    1 cup 10
    1 gill 5
    1 fluid oz 1 28.4 0.96
    1 tbl 5/8 (1/16 cup) 17.8?
    1 dsp 1/3 10
    1 tsp 1/6 5

    ----------------------------------------
    2.5 British Short Cuts (S)

    Cheese (grated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Cocoa or chocolate powder 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Coconut (desiccated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Flour (unsifted) 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Sugar (castor/caster) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (granulated) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (icing) 1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
    Syrup (golden) 1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops

    From a post on rec.food.cooking by Andrew Nicholson

    BTU - British Thermal Unit

    BTU x 1054 = Joules
    Watts x Seconds = Joules

    BTU = Watts x (Seconds/1054) = Watts x 3.415

    Gas Cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 BTU up
    to 12,000 BTU.

    Electric Cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts.

    To help you compare gas burners to electric elements:

    BTU Watts
    ------- ---------
    100 35
    200 70 <- gas burners lowest setting
    3400 1000
    6500 1900
    8000 2300 <- most electric tops stop here
    10000 2900
    12000 3500

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7 General Conversion Tables

    Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
    (mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements

    standard cup tablespoon teaspoon

    Canada 250ml 15ml 5ml
    Australia 250ml ** 20ml ** 5ml
    New Zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml
    UK 250ml 15ml 5ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.2 Weight

    1 ounce = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
    1 pound = 454 g
    1 kg = 2.2 pounds

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements

    1 litre = 1.057 quarts
    2.1 pints
    1 quart = 0.95 litre
    1 gallon= 3.8 litres
    1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
    1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
    1/3 " = 0.8 dl = 78 ml
    1/2 " = 1.2 dl = 120 ml
    2/3 " = 1.6 dl = 160 ml
    3/4 " = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
    7/8 " = 2.1 dl = 210 ml
    1 cup = 2.4 dl = 240 ml
    1 dl = 2/5 cup
    = 6 to 7 tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous

    1 UK pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
    1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz.

    a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is
    1/2 cup US.
    each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in
    US recipes weighs about 50 g.
    there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

    Gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form. The
    following is from a post by Sophie Laplante.

    It looks like there are different size sheets, and different size
    packets (US vs Europe). So the only way to go is to convert by weight.
    In France, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the UK
    it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the US.

    One Knox powdered gelatine envelope (US) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams.

    1 (US) envelope = 7 g,
    = 7 1-gram sheets,
    = 4 1.66-gram sheets,
    = 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets.

    1 (Europe) envelope = 11 g
    = 11 1-gram sheets,
    = 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets
    = 5 2-gram sheets

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart

    This chart was once posted by T. Terrell Banks who got it from a now
    forgotten source. It was then preserved on William Chuang's Web site.

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- allspice 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 almonds, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 almonds, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 anchovies 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 apples, dried 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 apples, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 apricots, dried 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 arrowroot 0.95 1.05 4.8 14.3 27 225 2.0 4.4 bacon fat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking powder 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking soda 0.87 1.15 4.3 13.0 24 205 2.2 4.9 bamboo shoots 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 bananas, mashed 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 bananas, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 barley, uncooked 0.78 1.28 3.9 11.8 22 185 2.5 5.4 basil, dried 0.11 9.44 0.5 1.6 3 25 18.1 40.0 beans, dried 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 beef, cooked 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 beef, raw 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 biscuit mix (Bisquick) 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 blue corn meal 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 bran, unsifted 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 brazil nuts, whole 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 bread crumbs, fresh 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 bread crumbs, packaged 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 buckwheat groats 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 butter 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3

    [continued in next message]

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  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Wed Jan 20 23:07:44 2016
    XPost: rec.food.cooking, rec.answers, news.answers

    Archive-name: cooking/faq
    Maintained-by: Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    LAST UPDATED 20 July, 2013

    - Capers (section 3)

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------- |Copyright Victor Sack 2003-2016, Copyright Mary Frye and Victor |
    |Sack 1999-2003, Copyright Amy Gale 1993-1999, Copyright Cindy | |Kandolf 1992-1993. All Rights Reserved. Portions Copyright by |
    |their particular authors. |
    | |
    |This FAQ may be cited as "The rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file|
    |as of <date>, available in rtfm.mit.edu FAQ archives as /cooking/faq" |
    | | |Permission to reproduce this document, or any whole section or | |substantial part (unless it was you who wrote it!) for profit is | |explicitly not granted. Permission to distribute free of charge or |
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    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    An easier-to-navigate frames version of the FAQ is available at http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/rfc_faq.html

    Welcome to the rec.food.cooking FAQ list and conversion helper!

    The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different
    countries communicate with one another. The problem is that
    measurements and terms for food vary from country to country,
    even if both countries speak English.

    However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list.
    You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. Try
    not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the
    product. If you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication
    of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume.

    A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery
    store is called a kiwi fruit. Whoever said "A pint's a pound the world
    around" must have believed the US was on another planet. And cast iron
    pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion!

    If you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read
    the guides to the Net and the Net etiquette which are posted to news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions regularly.
    They are also available via anonymous FTP from ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/announce/newusers/
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    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/newusers/questions/.
    In particular, you are strongly encouraged to read the following
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    The traditionally accepted quoting style is discussed at <http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/nquote.shtml>.

    Another excellent introduction to Usenet is available from <http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_6.html>.

    You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as
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    This FAQ is currently posted to rec.food.cooking, news.answers,
    rec.answers and rec.food.recipes. All posts to news.answers are
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    to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

    This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, and has been extended
    and maintained by Amy Gale since 1993. In August 1999, Maryf and Victor
    Sack have taken over the FAQ maintaining. In July 2003, Victor Sack
    became the sole maintainer. The FAQ has always benefited from
    contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. Credits appear at
    the end.

    Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then
    the section number. This should make searching for a specific section
    easy.

    Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have
    many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it,
    and see.

    Comments, corrections and changes to:
    Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    ----------------------------------------
    List of Answers

    1 Substitutions and Equivalents
    1.1 Flours
    1.2 Leavening Agents
    1.3 Dairy Products
    1.4 Starches
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners
    1.6 Fats
    1.7 Chocolates
    1.8 Meats
    1.9 Salt
    2 US/UK/metric conversions
    2.1 Oven temperatures
    2.2 Food equivalencies
    2.2.1 Flours
    2.2.2 Cereals
    2.2.3 Sugars
    2.2.4 Fats and Cheeses
    2.2.5 Vegetables and Fruit
    2.2.6 Dried Fruit and Nuts
    2.2.7 Preserves
    2.2.8 Egg sizes
    2.3 American liquid measures
    2.4 British liquid measures
    2.5 British short cuts
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops
    2.7 General Conversion Tables
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements
    2.7.2 Weight
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions
    2.8.1 Metric Cups
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons
    2.9 Catties
    2.10 Some Old Measurements
    2.11 Authorities
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms
    4 Cooking Methods
    4.1 Poaching
    4.2 Frying
    4.3 Sauting (and deglazing)
    4.4 Broiling
    4.5 Caramelising (of onions)
    4.6 Braising
    4.7 Cooking with alcohol
    4.8 Roasting
    5 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment
    5.1 Woks
    5.2 Cast Iron
    6 History and Lore of rec.food.cooking
    6.1 Origins of rec.food.cooking
    6.2 Some Higlights in the Life of rec.food.cooking
    6.3 What's all this about xxxx?
    7 This has come up once too often
    8 Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
    8.1 Recipe archives
    8.2 Other cooking/food sites
    9 Food newsgroups and mailing lists
    9.1 rec.food.cooking
    9.2 rec.food.recipes
    9.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.restaurants
    9.4 rec.food.veg
    9.5 rec.food.veg.cooking
    9.6 rec.food.preserving
    9.7 also...
    9.8 mailing lists
    10 Other culinary FAQs
    10.1 Foods
    10.2 Beverages
    10.3 Religion, lifestyle and special diets
    10.4 Miscellaneous
    10.5 Humour
    11 "Unofficial" rec.food.cooking Web site
    12 Sources
    12.1 Contributors
    12.2 Bibliography

    ----------------------------------------
    1 Substitutions and Equivalents

    This section contains information on where substitutions can be made,
    and what they can be made with.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.1 Flours

    US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one
    another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is
    not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour
    and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.

    Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2
    teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. Some brands in some regions don't
    contain salt.

    US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.2 Leavening agents

    Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic
    ingredients to work. Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered
    acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.3 Dairy Products

    Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are
    thick and a weird colour... but are not, as I thought when I was small,
    the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed
    with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but
    this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons
    dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup
    granulated sugar. If you're not sure whether it is available in your
    market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "Good Luck"
    is apparently a common brand in North America.

    If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour
    milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of
    vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't
    stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

    The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
    (UK) (US)
    Clotted Cream 55%
    Double Cream 48%
    Heavy Cream 36%
    Whipping Cream 35% 30%
    Whipped Cream 35%
    Single Cream 18% (=Light Cream)
    Half Cream 12% (=Half and Half*)

    * Half and Half has only 10% butterfat in British Columbia.

    For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3.

    Quark (aka quarg) [7]
    A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream,
    Quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat. Though the calories
    are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than
    that of lowfat sour cream. It has a milder flavour and richer texture
    than lowfat yoghurt. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to
    top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes
    including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.4 Starches

    UK cornflour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its
    name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It
    often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

    In the US, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal. If in doubt about
    which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it
    to you! A couple of rules of thumb:
    - in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch
    - as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground
    cornmeal

    Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour!
    What one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to
    cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

    Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be
    used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.

    If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount
    of all-purpose/plain flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it
    to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners

    UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.
    There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the
    same as UK castor/caster sugar. It is called "berry sugar" in British Columbia. Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but I've got reports of times this
    didn't work so well! As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the
    substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

    (US) Confectioner's sugar is (UK/Aust/NZ) icing sugar. Sometimes these
    are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch).
    This can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan.

    Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden)
    syrup can be substituted.

    Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. Light corn syrup is
    just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. Some people have
    substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found
    it successful. A common US brand is Karo.

    Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane
    sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight
    acidic, metallic component. Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in rec.food.cooking, the New Zealand brand name is Chelsea.

    If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2
    parts sugar, 1 part water. This could be messy. You may want to thin
    it out with water. Again, you may want to try this out on your own
    before making something for a special occasion.

    Black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.6 Fats

    Shortening is any fat used to make pastry short.
    A popular brand name is Crisco, solid white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil, and many people call all shortening Crisco. It is
    common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe.
    In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute butter or
    margarine for Crisco. The result will have a slightly different
    texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say, chocolate
    chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). Sometimes this doesn't work
    too well. Not to sound like a broken record but - try it out before an important occasion.

    Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and
    used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and
    left to set.

    Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it
    makes very flaky pastry.

    Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter
    and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil.
    Corn and peanut oils are both good.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.7 Chocolates

    If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three
    tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat
    (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

    US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the
    darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also
    called bittersweet). What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called
    milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is
    the US dark or UK plain. "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term
    for high quality plain chocolate.

    Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark,"
    "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be
    minor variations on a theme.

    Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates,
    because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.8 Meats

    If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use Cornish game hens

    ----------------------------------------
    1.9 Salt

    There are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt.
    They are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride. Table
    salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea. Sea salt
    is extracted from evaporated sea water.

    From these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing
    somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use. Some of
    them are listed below.

    - Table salt. It is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt)
    and often contains anti-caking agents.

    - Kosher salt. Called so, because it is used for koshering purposes,
    i.e., drawing blood from meat. It is a coarse salt which generally
    contains no additives. Because of the large size of the crystals, about
    twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste
    intensity as would be needed using regular table salt. Many people
    prefer it to the regular table salt.

    - Pickling salt. It is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and
    canning. Like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as
    anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine.

    - Sel gris. Grey sea salt. This kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining various minerals. Produced near the town of Gurande in Brittany,
    France. It is said to smell of the sea. Generally used for seasoning
    already cooked dishes.

    - Fleur de sel. A very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but creamy-white in colour. Harvested from the thin white film that forms
    on the surface of the salt marshes in Brittany. Said to be prized by
    some French chefs. Some other people consider it a marketing gimmick.
    Also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Indian black salt (kala namak). Brown-to-black in colour, it has a
    smoky, sulphuric flavour. Used in some Indian dishes.

    - Hawaiian alaea salt. It takes its name and a reddish colour from the
    red clay (alaea) found along the shores. It is also generally used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Rock salt. Greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing
    many minerals and impurities. Supposed to be inedible, it is used in
    ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads.

    ----------------------------------------
    2 US/UK/metric conversions

    Some of these tables were combined from various sources by Andrew
    Mossberg aem(at)symcor.com, whose sources included Caroline Knight cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com, Fruitbat and the New York City Library Desk Reference. Other tables were compiled from a variety of sources.
    Corrections and additions welcomed!

    ----------------------------------------
    2.1 Oven Temperatures

    An approximate conversion chart(P):-

    Electric Gas mark Description

    Fahrenheit Celsius

    225F 110C 1/4 Very cool/very slow
    250F 130C 1/2
    275F 140C 1 cool
    300F 150C 2
    325F 170C 3 very moderate
    350F 180C 4 moderate
    375F 190C 5
    400F 200C 6 moderately hot
    425F 220C 7 hot
    450F 230C 8
    475F 240C 9 very hot

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2 Food Equivalencies

    Sometimes the sources did not agree... I've given both:-

    British measure American equivalent

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.1 Flours

    flour - white plain/strong/ sifted flour - all-purpose/
    self-raising/unbleached unbleached white
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    5 oz(K)
    wholemeal/stoneground whole wheat
    6 oz(K) 1 cup
    cornflour cornstarch
    4 1/2 oz (P) 1 cup
    5.3 oz (K)
    yellow corn meal/polenta coarse corn meal/polenta
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    rye flour rye flour
    6 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.2 Cereals

    pearl barley pearl barley
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
    berries
    7 oz(K) 1 cup
    semolina/ground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/
    cake crumbs cake crumbs
    2 oz(P) 1 cup
    dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    porridge oats rolled oats
    3 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.3 Sugars

    light/dark soft brown sugar light/dark brown sugar
    8 oz(P) 1 cup (firmly packed)
    castor/caster/granulated sugar granulated sugar
    7 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup
    icing sugar sifted confectioners' sugar
    4 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.4 Fats and cheeses

    butter, margarine, cooking butter, shortening, lard,
    fat, lard, dripping drippings - solid or melted
    1 oz(P) 2 tablespoons
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    grated cheese - cheddar type grated cheese - cheddar type
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    1 lb(K) 4 - 5 cups (packed)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.5 Vegetables and fruit

    onion onion
    1 small to med 1 cup chopped
    shelled peas shelled peas
    4 oz(P) 3/4 cup
    cooked sweet corn cooked sweet corn
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    celery celery
    4 sticks 1 cup (chopped)
    chopped tomatoes chopped tomatoes
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    button mushrooms button mushrooms
    3-4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped pickled beetroot chopped pickled beetroot
    2 oz(P) 1/3 cup
    black/redcurrants/bilberries black/redcurrants/bilberries
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    raspberries/strawberries raspberries/strawberries
    5 oz(P) 1 cup

    Dried beans:
    black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
    white white
    3 1/2 oz(K) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.6 Dried fruit and nuts, etc.

    currants/sultanas/raisins/ currants/sultanas/raisins/
    chopped candied peel chopped candied peel
    5-6 oz(P) 1 cup
    2 oz(K - raisins) 1/3 cup
    glace cherries candied cherries
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    sesame seeds sesame seeds
    3 1/2 oz 3/4 cup
    whole shelled almonds whole shelled almonds
    5 oz(P) 1 cup
    ground almonds ground almonds
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped nuts chopped nuts
    2 oz(K) 1/3 to 1/2 cup

    Nut butters:
    peanut/almond/cashew etc. peanut/almond/cashew etc.
    8 oz(K) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.7 Preserves

    clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/
    molasses/black treacle molasses/black treacle
    12 oz(P) 1 cup
    maple/corn syrup maple/corn syrup
    11 oz(P) 1 cup
    jam/marmalade/jelly jam/marmalade/jelly
    5-6 oz(P) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.8 Egg sizes

    According to the BEIS (British Egg Information Service) Web site, eggs
    in the UK are now sold in four different sizes: Small, Medium, Large and
    Very Large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7).

    UK egg sizes

    New Size Weight Old Size

    Very Large 73g +over Size 0
    Size 1

    Large 63 - 73g Size 1
    Size 2
    Size 3

    Medium 53 - 63g Size 3
    Size 4
    Size 5

    Small 53g +under Size 5
    Size 6
    Size 7

    US egg sizes

    Egg sizes Average weight

    Jumbo 2 1/2 oz (71g)
    Extra-large 2 1/4 oz (64g)
    Large 2 oz (57g)
    Medium 1 3/4 oz (50g)
    Small 1 1/2 oz (43g)
    Peewee 1 1/4 oz (35g)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.3 American Liquid Measures

    1 liquid pint 473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
    1 dry pint 551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
    1 cup 237 ml ( 8 fl oz)
    1 tablespoon 15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
    1 fluid ounce 30 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.4 British Liquid Measures

    1 pint 568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
    1 breakfast cup ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
    1 tea cup 1/3 pint
    1 tablespoon 15 ml
    1 dessertspoon 10 ml
    1 teaspoon 5 ml 1/3 tablespoon

    And from
    "Mastering the art of French cooking". Penguin UK, issue 1961
    UK UK oz Metric ml US oz

    1 quart 40 1140 38.5
    1 pint 20 570
    1 cup 10
    1 gill 5
    1 fluid oz 1 28.4 0.96
    1 tbl 5/8 (1/16 cup) 17.8?
    1 dsp 1/3 10
    1 tsp 1/6 5

    ----------------------------------------
    2.5 British Short Cuts (S)

    Cheese (grated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Cocoa or chocolate powder 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Coconut (desiccated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Flour (unsifted) 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Sugar (castor/caster) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (granulated) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (icing) 1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
    Syrup (golden) 1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops

    From a post on rec.food.cooking by Andrew Nicholson

    BTU - British Thermal Unit

    BTU x 1054 = Joules
    Watts x Seconds = Joules

    BTU = Watts x (Seconds/1054) = Watts x 3.415

    Gas Cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 BTU up
    to 12,000 BTU.

    Electric Cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts.

    To help you compare gas burners to electric elements:

    BTU Watts
    ------- ---------
    100 35
    200 70 <- gas burners lowest setting
    3400 1000
    6500 1900
    8000 2300 <- most electric tops stop here
    10000 2900
    12000 3500

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7 General Conversion Tables

    Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
    (mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements

    standard cup tablespoon teaspoon

    Canada 250ml 15ml 5ml
    Australia 250ml ** 20ml ** 5ml
    New Zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml
    UK 250ml 15ml 5ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.2 Weight

    1 ounce = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
    1 pound = 454 g
    1 kg = 2.2 pounds

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements

    1 litre = 1.057 quarts
    2.1 pints
    1 quart = 0.95 litre
    1 gallon= 3.8 litres
    1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
    1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
    1/3 " = 0.8 dl = 78 ml
    1/2 " = 1.2 dl = 120 ml
    2/3 " = 1.6 dl = 160 ml
    3/4 " = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
    7/8 " = 2.1 dl = 210 ml
    1 cup = 2.4 dl = 240 ml
    1 dl = 2/5 cup
    = 6 to 7 tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous

    1 UK pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
    1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz.

    a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is
    1/2 cup US.
    each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in
    US recipes weighs about 50 g.
    there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

    Gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form. The
    following is from a post by Sophie Laplante.

    It looks like there are different size sheets, and different size
    packets (US vs Europe). So the only way to go is to convert by weight.
    In France, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the UK
    it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the US.

    One Knox powdered gelatine envelope (US) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams.

    1 (US) envelope = 7 g,
    = 7 1-gram sheets,
    = 4 1.66-gram sheets,
    = 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets.

    1 (Europe) envelope = 11 g
    = 11 1-gram sheets,
    = 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets
    = 5 2-gram sheets

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart

    This chart was once posted by T. Terrell Banks who got it from a now
    forgotten source. It was then preserved on William Chuang's Web site.

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- allspice 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 almonds, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 almonds, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 anchovies 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 apples, dried 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 apples, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 apricots, dried 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 arrowroot 0.95 1.05 4.8 14.3 27 225 2.0 4.4 bacon fat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking powder 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking soda 0.87 1.15 4.3 13.0 24 205 2.2 4.9 bamboo shoots 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 bananas, mashed 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 bananas, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 barley, uncooked 0.78 1.28 3.9 11.8 22 185 2.5 5.4 basil, dried 0.11 9.44 0.5 1.6 3 25 18.1 40.0 beans, dried 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 beef, cooked 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 beef, raw 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 biscuit mix (Bisquick) 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 blue corn meal 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 bran, unsifted 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 brazil nuts, whole 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 bread crumbs, fresh 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 bread crumbs, packaged 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 buckwheat groats 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 butter 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3

    [continued in next message]

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  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Sat Feb 20 22:40:56 2016
    XPost: rec.food.cooking, rec.answers, news.answers

    Archive-name: cooking/faq
    Maintained-by: Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    LAST UPDATED 20 July, 2013

    - Capers (section 3)

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------- |Copyright Victor Sack 2003-2016, Copyright Mary Frye and Victor |
    |Sack 1999-2003, Copyright Amy Gale 1993-1999, Copyright Cindy | |Kandolf 1992-1993. All Rights Reserved. Portions Copyright by |
    |their particular authors. |
    | |
    |This FAQ may be cited as "The rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file|
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    | | |Permission to reproduce this document, or any whole section or | |substantial part (unless it was you who wrote it!) for profit is | |explicitly not granted. Permission to distribute free of charge or |
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    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    An easier-to-navigate frames version of the FAQ is available at http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/rfc_faq.html

    Welcome to the rec.food.cooking FAQ list and conversion helper!

    The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different
    countries communicate with one another. The problem is that
    measurements and terms for food vary from country to country,
    even if both countries speak English.

    However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list.
    You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. Try
    not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the
    product. If you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication
    of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume.

    A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery
    store is called a kiwi fruit. Whoever said "A pint's a pound the world
    around" must have believed the US was on another planet. And cast iron
    pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion!

    If you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read
    the guides to the Net and the Net etiquette which are posted to news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions regularly.
    They are also available via anonymous FTP from ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/announce/newusers/
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    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/newusers/questions/.
    In particular, you are strongly encouraged to read the following
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    Another excellent introduction to Usenet is available from <http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_6.html>.

    You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as
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    This FAQ is currently posted to rec.food.cooking, news.answers,
    rec.answers and rec.food.recipes. All posts to news.answers are
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    to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

    This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, and has been extended
    and maintained by Amy Gale since 1993. In August 1999, Maryf and Victor
    Sack have taken over the FAQ maintaining. In July 2003, Victor Sack
    became the sole maintainer. The FAQ has always benefited from
    contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. Credits appear at
    the end.

    Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then
    the section number. This should make searching for a specific section
    easy.

    Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have
    many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it,
    and see.

    Comments, corrections and changes to:
    Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    ----------------------------------------
    List of Answers

    1 Substitutions and Equivalents
    1.1 Flours
    1.2 Leavening Agents
    1.3 Dairy Products
    1.4 Starches
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners
    1.6 Fats
    1.7 Chocolates
    1.8 Meats
    1.9 Salt
    2 US/UK/metric conversions
    2.1 Oven temperatures
    2.2 Food equivalencies
    2.2.1 Flours
    2.2.2 Cereals
    2.2.3 Sugars
    2.2.4 Fats and Cheeses
    2.2.5 Vegetables and Fruit
    2.2.6 Dried Fruit and Nuts
    2.2.7 Preserves
    2.2.8 Egg sizes
    2.3 American liquid measures
    2.4 British liquid measures
    2.5 British short cuts
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops
    2.7 General Conversion Tables
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements
    2.7.2 Weight
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions
    2.8.1 Metric Cups
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons
    2.9 Catties
    2.10 Some Old Measurements
    2.11 Authorities
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms
    4 Cooking Methods
    4.1 Poaching
    4.2 Frying
    4.3 Sauting (and deglazing)
    4.4 Broiling
    4.5 Caramelising (of onions)
    4.6 Braising
    4.7 Cooking with alcohol
    4.8 Roasting
    5 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment
    5.1 Woks
    5.2 Cast Iron
    6 History and Lore of rec.food.cooking
    6.1 Origins of rec.food.cooking
    6.2 Some Higlights in the Life of rec.food.cooking
    6.3 What's all this about xxxx?
    7 This has come up once too often
    8 Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
    8.1 Recipe archives
    8.2 Other cooking/food sites
    9 Food newsgroups and mailing lists
    9.1 rec.food.cooking
    9.2 rec.food.recipes
    9.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.restaurants
    9.4 rec.food.veg
    9.5 rec.food.veg.cooking
    9.6 rec.food.preserving
    9.7 also...
    9.8 mailing lists
    10 Other culinary FAQs
    10.1 Foods
    10.2 Beverages
    10.3 Religion, lifestyle and special diets
    10.4 Miscellaneous
    10.5 Humour
    11 "Unofficial" rec.food.cooking Web site
    12 Sources
    12.1 Contributors
    12.2 Bibliography

    ----------------------------------------
    1 Substitutions and Equivalents

    This section contains information on where substitutions can be made,
    and what they can be made with.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.1 Flours

    US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one
    another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is
    not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour
    and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.

    Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2
    teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. Some brands in some regions don't
    contain salt.

    US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.2 Leavening agents

    Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic
    ingredients to work. Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered
    acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.3 Dairy Products

    Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are
    thick and a weird colour... but are not, as I thought when I was small,
    the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed
    with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but
    this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons
    dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup
    granulated sugar. If you're not sure whether it is available in your
    market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "Good Luck"
    is apparently a common brand in North America.

    If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour
    milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of
    vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't
    stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

    The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
    (UK) (US)
    Clotted Cream 55%
    Double Cream 48%
    Heavy Cream 36%
    Whipping Cream 35% 30%
    Whipped Cream 35%
    Single Cream 18% (=Light Cream)
    Half Cream 12% (=Half and Half*)

    * Half and Half has only 10% butterfat in British Columbia.

    For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3.

    Quark (aka quarg) [7]
    A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream,
    Quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat. Though the calories
    are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than
    that of lowfat sour cream. It has a milder flavour and richer texture
    than lowfat yoghurt. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to
    top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes
    including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.4 Starches

    UK cornflour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its
    name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It
    often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

    In the US, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal. If in doubt about
    which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it
    to you! A couple of rules of thumb:
    - in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch
    - as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground
    cornmeal

    Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour!
    What one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to
    cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

    Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be
    used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.

    If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount
    of all-purpose/plain flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it
    to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners

    UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.
    There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the
    same as UK castor/caster sugar. It is called "berry sugar" in British Columbia. Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but I've got reports of times this
    didn't work so well! As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the
    substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

    (US) Confectioner's sugar is (UK/Aust/NZ) icing sugar. Sometimes these
    are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch).
    This can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan.

    Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden)
    syrup can be substituted.

    Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. Light corn syrup is
    just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. Some people have
    substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found
    it successful. A common US brand is Karo.

    Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane
    sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight
    acidic, metallic component. Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in rec.food.cooking, the New Zealand brand name is Chelsea.

    If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2
    parts sugar, 1 part water. This could be messy. You may want to thin
    it out with water. Again, you may want to try this out on your own
    before making something for a special occasion.

    Black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.6 Fats

    Shortening is any fat used to make pastry short.
    A popular brand name is Crisco, solid white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil, and many people call all shortening Crisco. It is
    common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe.
    In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute butter or
    margarine for Crisco. The result will have a slightly different
    texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say, chocolate
    chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). Sometimes this doesn't work
    too well. Not to sound like a broken record but - try it out before an important occasion.

    Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and
    used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and
    left to set.

    Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it
    makes very flaky pastry.

    Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter
    and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil.
    Corn and peanut oils are both good.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.7 Chocolates

    If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three
    tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat
    (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

    US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the
    darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also
    called bittersweet). What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called
    milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is
    the US dark or UK plain. "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term
    for high quality plain chocolate.

    Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark,"
    "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be
    minor variations on a theme.

    Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates,
    because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.8 Meats

    If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use Cornish game hens

    ----------------------------------------
    1.9 Salt

    There are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt.
    They are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride. Table
    salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea. Sea salt
    is extracted from evaporated sea water.

    From these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing
    somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use. Some of
    them are listed below.

    - Table salt. It is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt)
    and often contains anti-caking agents.

    - Kosher salt. Called so, because it is used for koshering purposes,
    i.e., drawing blood from meat. It is a coarse salt which generally
    contains no additives. Because of the large size of the crystals, about
    twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste
    intensity as would be needed using regular table salt. Many people
    prefer it to the regular table salt.

    - Pickling salt. It is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and
    canning. Like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as
    anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine.

    - Sel gris. Grey sea salt. This kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining various minerals. Produced near the town of Gurande in Brittany,
    France. It is said to smell of the sea. Generally used for seasoning
    already cooked dishes.

    - Fleur de sel. A very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but creamy-white in colour. Harvested from the thin white film that forms
    on the surface of the salt marshes in Brittany. Said to be prized by
    some French chefs. Some other people consider it a marketing gimmick.
    Also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Indian black salt (kala namak). Brown-to-black in colour, it has a
    smoky, sulphuric flavour. Used in some Indian dishes.

    - Hawaiian alaea salt. It takes its name and a reddish colour from the
    red clay (alaea) found along the shores. It is also generally used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Rock salt. Greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing
    many minerals and impurities. Supposed to be inedible, it is used in
    ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads.

    ----------------------------------------
    2 US/UK/metric conversions

    Some of these tables were combined from various sources by Andrew
    Mossberg aem(at)symcor.com, whose sources included Caroline Knight cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com, Fruitbat and the New York City Library Desk Reference. Other tables were compiled from a variety of sources.
    Corrections and additions welcomed!

    ----------------------------------------
    2.1 Oven Temperatures

    An approximate conversion chart(P):-

    Electric Gas mark Description

    Fahrenheit Celsius

    225F 110C 1/4 Very cool/very slow
    250F 130C 1/2
    275F 140C 1 cool
    300F 150C 2
    325F 170C 3 very moderate
    350F 180C 4 moderate
    375F 190C 5
    400F 200C 6 moderately hot
    425F 220C 7 hot
    450F 230C 8
    475F 240C 9 very hot

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2 Food Equivalencies

    Sometimes the sources did not agree... I've given both:-

    British measure American equivalent

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.1 Flours

    flour - white plain/strong/ sifted flour - all-purpose/
    self-raising/unbleached unbleached white
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    5 oz(K)
    wholemeal/stoneground whole wheat
    6 oz(K) 1 cup
    cornflour cornstarch
    4 1/2 oz (P) 1 cup
    5.3 oz (K)
    yellow corn meal/polenta coarse corn meal/polenta
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    rye flour rye flour
    6 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.2 Cereals

    pearl barley pearl barley
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
    berries
    7 oz(K) 1 cup
    semolina/ground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/
    cake crumbs cake crumbs
    2 oz(P) 1 cup
    dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    porridge oats rolled oats
    3 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.3 Sugars

    light/dark soft brown sugar light/dark brown sugar
    8 oz(P) 1 cup (firmly packed)
    castor/caster/granulated sugar granulated sugar
    7 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup
    icing sugar sifted confectioners' sugar
    4 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.4 Fats and cheeses

    butter, margarine, cooking butter, shortening, lard,
    fat, lard, dripping drippings - solid or melted
    1 oz(P) 2 tablespoons
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    grated cheese - cheddar type grated cheese - cheddar type
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    1 lb(K) 4 - 5 cups (packed)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.5 Vegetables and fruit

    onion onion
    1 small to med 1 cup chopped
    shelled peas shelled peas
    4 oz(P) 3/4 cup
    cooked sweet corn cooked sweet corn
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    celery celery
    4 sticks 1 cup (chopped)
    chopped tomatoes chopped tomatoes
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    button mushrooms button mushrooms
    3-4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped pickled beetroot chopped pickled beetroot
    2 oz(P) 1/3 cup
    black/redcurrants/bilberries black/redcurrants/bilberries
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    raspberries/strawberries raspberries/strawberries
    5 oz(P) 1 cup

    Dried beans:
    black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
    white white
    3 1/2 oz(K) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.6 Dried fruit and nuts, etc.

    currants/sultanas/raisins/ currants/sultanas/raisins/
    chopped candied peel chopped candied peel
    5-6 oz(P) 1 cup
    2 oz(K - raisins) 1/3 cup
    glace cherries candied cherries
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    sesame seeds sesame seeds
    3 1/2 oz 3/4 cup
    whole shelled almonds whole shelled almonds
    5 oz(P) 1 cup
    ground almonds ground almonds
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped nuts chopped nuts
    2 oz(K) 1/3 to 1/2 cup

    Nut butters:
    peanut/almond/cashew etc. peanut/almond/cashew etc.
    8 oz(K) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.7 Preserves

    clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/
    molasses/black treacle molasses/black treacle
    12 oz(P) 1 cup
    maple/corn syrup maple/corn syrup
    11 oz(P) 1 cup
    jam/marmalade/jelly jam/marmalade/jelly
    5-6 oz(P) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.8 Egg sizes

    According to the BEIS (British Egg Information Service) Web site, eggs
    in the UK are now sold in four different sizes: Small, Medium, Large and
    Very Large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7).

    UK egg sizes

    New Size Weight Old Size

    Very Large 73g +over Size 0
    Size 1

    Large 63 - 73g Size 1
    Size 2
    Size 3

    Medium 53 - 63g Size 3
    Size 4
    Size 5

    Small 53g +under Size 5
    Size 6
    Size 7

    US egg sizes

    Egg sizes Average weight

    Jumbo 2 1/2 oz (71g)
    Extra-large 2 1/4 oz (64g)
    Large 2 oz (57g)
    Medium 1 3/4 oz (50g)
    Small 1 1/2 oz (43g)
    Peewee 1 1/4 oz (35g)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.3 American Liquid Measures

    1 liquid pint 473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
    1 dry pint 551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
    1 cup 237 ml ( 8 fl oz)
    1 tablespoon 15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
    1 fluid ounce 30 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.4 British Liquid Measures

    1 pint 568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
    1 breakfast cup ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
    1 tea cup 1/3 pint
    1 tablespoon 15 ml
    1 dessertspoon 10 ml
    1 teaspoon 5 ml 1/3 tablespoon

    And from
    "Mastering the art of French cooking". Penguin UK, issue 1961
    UK UK oz Metric ml US oz

    1 quart 40 1140 38.5
    1 pint 20 570
    1 cup 10
    1 gill 5
    1 fluid oz 1 28.4 0.96
    1 tbl 5/8 (1/16 cup) 17.8?
    1 dsp 1/3 10
    1 tsp 1/6 5

    ----------------------------------------
    2.5 British Short Cuts (S)

    Cheese (grated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Cocoa or chocolate powder 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Coconut (desiccated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Flour (unsifted) 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Sugar (castor/caster) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (granulated) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (icing) 1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
    Syrup (golden) 1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops

    From a post on rec.food.cooking by Andrew Nicholson

    BTU - British Thermal Unit

    BTU x 1054 = Joules
    Watts x Seconds = Joules

    BTU = Watts x (Seconds/1054) = Watts x 3.415

    Gas Cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 BTU up
    to 12,000 BTU.

    Electric Cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts.

    To help you compare gas burners to electric elements:

    BTU Watts
    ------- ---------
    100 35
    200 70 <- gas burners lowest setting
    3400 1000
    6500 1900
    8000 2300 <- most electric tops stop here
    10000 2900
    12000 3500

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7 General Conversion Tables

    Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
    (mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements

    standard cup tablespoon teaspoon

    Canada 250ml 15ml 5ml
    Australia 250ml ** 20ml ** 5ml
    New Zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml
    UK 250ml 15ml 5ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.2 Weight

    1 ounce = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
    1 pound = 454 g
    1 kg = 2.2 pounds

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements

    1 litre = 1.057 quarts
    2.1 pints
    1 quart = 0.95 litre
    1 gallon= 3.8 litres
    1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
    1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
    1/3 " = 0.8 dl = 78 ml
    1/2 " = 1.2 dl = 120 ml
    2/3 " = 1.6 dl = 160 ml
    3/4 " = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
    7/8 " = 2.1 dl = 210 ml
    1 cup = 2.4 dl = 240 ml
    1 dl = 2/5 cup
    = 6 to 7 tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous

    1 UK pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
    1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz.

    a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is
    1/2 cup US.
    each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in
    US recipes weighs about 50 g.
    there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

    Gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form. The
    following is from a post by Sophie Laplante.

    It looks like there are different size sheets, and different size
    packets (US vs Europe). So the only way to go is to convert by weight.
    In France, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the UK
    it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the US.

    One Knox powdered gelatine envelope (US) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams.

    1 (US) envelope = 7 g,
    = 7 1-gram sheets,
    = 4 1.66-gram sheets,
    = 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets.

    1 (Europe) envelope = 11 g
    = 11 1-gram sheets,
    = 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets
    = 5 2-gram sheets

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart

    This chart was once posted by T. Terrell Banks who got it from a now
    forgotten source. It was then preserved on William Chuang's Web site.

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- allspice 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 almonds, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 almonds, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 anchovies 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 apples, dried 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 apples, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 apricots, dried 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 arrowroot 0.95 1.05 4.8 14.3 27 225 2.0 4.4 bacon fat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking powder 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking soda 0.87 1.15 4.3 13.0 24 205 2.2 4.9 bamboo shoots 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 bananas, mashed 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 bananas, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 barley, uncooked 0.78 1.28 3.9 11.8 22 185 2.5 5.4 basil, dried 0.11 9.44 0.5 1.6 3 25 18.1 40.0 beans, dried 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 beef, cooked 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 beef, raw 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 biscuit mix (Bisquick) 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 blue corn meal 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 bran, unsifted 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 brazil nuts, whole 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 bread crumbs, fresh 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 bread crumbs, packaged 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 buckwheat groats 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 butter 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3

    [continued in next message]

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  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Sun Mar 20 21:21:05 2016
    XPost: rec.food.cooking, rec.answers, news.answers

    Archive-name: cooking/faq
    Maintained-by: Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    LAST UPDATED 20 July, 2013

    - Capers (section 3)

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------- |Copyright Victor Sack 2003-2016, Copyright Mary Frye and Victor |
    |Sack 1999-2003, Copyright Amy Gale 1993-1999, Copyright Cindy | |Kandolf 1992-1993. All Rights Reserved. Portions Copyright by |
    |their particular authors. |
    | |
    |This FAQ may be cited as "The rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file|
    |as of <date>, available in rtfm.mit.edu FAQ archives as /cooking/faq" |
    | | |Permission to reproduce this document, or any whole section or | |substantial part (unless it was you who wrote it!) for profit is | |explicitly not granted. Permission to distribute free of charge or |
    |with charges only to cover the cost of reproduction is granted, | |provided credits remain intact. This paragraph and the two above |
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    |use of the material. |
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    An easier-to-navigate frames version of the FAQ is available at http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/rfc_faq.html

    Welcome to the rec.food.cooking FAQ list and conversion helper!

    The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different
    countries communicate with one another. The problem is that
    measurements and terms for food vary from country to country,
    even if both countries speak English.

    However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list.
    You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. Try
    not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the
    product. If you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication
    of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume.

    A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery
    store is called a kiwi fruit. Whoever said "A pint's a pound the world
    around" must have believed the US was on another planet. And cast iron
    pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion!

    If you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read
    the guides to the Net and the Net etiquette which are posted to news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions regularly.
    They are also available via anonymous FTP from ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/announce/newusers/
    or from
    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/newusers/questions/.
    In particular, you are strongly encouraged to read the following
    postings:

    What is Usenet?
    <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/what-is/part1/>

    A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/primer/part1>

    Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/faq/part1/>

    Rules for posting to Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Hints on writing style for Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/writing-style/part1/>

    Advertising on Usenet: How To Do It, How Not To Do It <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/advertising/how-to/part1/>

    How To Find the Right Place To Post <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/finding-groups/general>

    The moderators of news.newusers.questions maintain an excellent Web site
    with helpful links to basic Usenet information. The site is at http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/.

    The traditionally accepted quoting style is discussed at <http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/nquote.shtml>.

    Another excellent introduction to Usenet is available from <http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_6.html>.

    You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as
    know about smileys, followups and when to reply by email to postings.

    This FAQ is currently posted to rec.food.cooking, news.answers,
    rec.answers and rec.food.recipes. All posts to news.answers are
    archived, and it is possible to retrieve the last posted copy via
    anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/rec.food.cooking. Those
    without FTP access should send e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with
    "send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the body to find out how
    to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

    This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, and has been extended
    and maintained by Amy Gale since 1993. In August 1999, Maryf and Victor
    Sack have taken over the FAQ maintaining. In July 2003, Victor Sack
    became the sole maintainer. The FAQ has always benefited from
    contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. Credits appear at
    the end.

    Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then
    the section number. This should make searching for a specific section
    easy.

    Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have
    many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it,
    and see.

    Comments, corrections and changes to:
    Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    ----------------------------------------
    List of Answers

    1 Substitutions and Equivalents
    1.1 Flours
    1.2 Leavening Agents
    1.3 Dairy Products
    1.4 Starches
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners
    1.6 Fats
    1.7 Chocolates
    1.8 Meats
    1.9 Salt
    2 US/UK/metric conversions
    2.1 Oven temperatures
    2.2 Food equivalencies
    2.2.1 Flours
    2.2.2 Cereals
    2.2.3 Sugars
    2.2.4 Fats and Cheeses
    2.2.5 Vegetables and Fruit
    2.2.6 Dried Fruit and Nuts
    2.2.7 Preserves
    2.2.8 Egg sizes
    2.3 American liquid measures
    2.4 British liquid measures
    2.5 British short cuts
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops
    2.7 General Conversion Tables
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements
    2.7.2 Weight
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions
    2.8.1 Metric Cups
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons
    2.9 Catties
    2.10 Some Old Measurements
    2.11 Authorities
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms
    4 Cooking Methods
    4.1 Poaching
    4.2 Frying
    4.3 Sauting (and deglazing)
    4.4 Broiling
    4.5 Caramelising (of onions)
    4.6 Braising
    4.7 Cooking with alcohol
    4.8 Roasting
    5 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment
    5.1 Woks
    5.2 Cast Iron
    6 History and Lore of rec.food.cooking
    6.1 Origins of rec.food.cooking
    6.2 Some Higlights in the Life of rec.food.cooking
    6.3 What's all this about xxxx?
    7 This has come up once too often
    8 Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
    8.1 Recipe archives
    8.2 Other cooking/food sites
    9 Food newsgroups and mailing lists
    9.1 rec.food.cooking
    9.2 rec.food.recipes
    9.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.restaurants
    9.4 rec.food.veg
    9.5 rec.food.veg.cooking
    9.6 rec.food.preserving
    9.7 also...
    9.8 mailing lists
    10 Other culinary FAQs
    10.1 Foods
    10.2 Beverages
    10.3 Religion, lifestyle and special diets
    10.4 Miscellaneous
    10.5 Humour
    11 "Unofficial" rec.food.cooking Web site
    12 Sources
    12.1 Contributors
    12.2 Bibliography

    ----------------------------------------
    1 Substitutions and Equivalents

    This section contains information on where substitutions can be made,
    and what they can be made with.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.1 Flours

    US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one
    another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is
    not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour
    and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.

    Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2
    teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. Some brands in some regions don't
    contain salt.

    US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.2 Leavening agents

    Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic
    ingredients to work. Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered
    acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.3 Dairy Products

    Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are
    thick and a weird colour... but are not, as I thought when I was small,
    the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed
    with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but
    this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons
    dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup
    granulated sugar. If you're not sure whether it is available in your
    market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "Good Luck"
    is apparently a common brand in North America.

    If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour
    milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of
    vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't
    stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

    The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
    (UK) (US)
    Clotted Cream 55%
    Double Cream 48%
    Heavy Cream 36%
    Whipping Cream 35% 30%
    Whipped Cream 35%
    Single Cream 18% (=Light Cream)
    Half Cream 12% (=Half and Half*)

    * Half and Half has only 10% butterfat in British Columbia.

    For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3.

    Quark (aka quarg) [7]
    A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream,
    Quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat. Though the calories
    are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than
    that of lowfat sour cream. It has a milder flavour and richer texture
    than lowfat yoghurt. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to
    top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes
    including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.4 Starches

    UK cornflour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its
    name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It
    often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

    In the US, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal. If in doubt about
    which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it
    to you! A couple of rules of thumb:
    - in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch
    - as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground
    cornmeal

    Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour!
    What one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to
    cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

    Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be
    used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.

    If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount
    of all-purpose/plain flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it
    to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners

    UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.
    There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the
    same as UK castor/caster sugar. It is called "berry sugar" in British Columbia. Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but I've got reports of times this
    didn't work so well! As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the
    substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

    (US) Confectioner's sugar is (UK/Aust/NZ) icing sugar. Sometimes these
    are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch).
    This can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan.

    Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden)
    syrup can be substituted.

    Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. Light corn syrup is
    just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. Some people have
    substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found
    it successful. A common US brand is Karo.

    Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane
    sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight
    acidic, metallic component. Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in rec.food.cooking, the New Zealand brand name is Chelsea.

    If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2
    parts sugar, 1 part water. This could be messy. You may want to thin
    it out with water. Again, you may want to try this out on your own
    before making something for a special occasion.

    Black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.6 Fats

    Shortening is any fat used to make pastry short.
    A popular brand name is Crisco, solid white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil, and many people call all shortening Crisco. It is
    common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe.
    In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute butter or
    margarine for Crisco. The result will have a slightly different
    texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say, chocolate
    chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). Sometimes this doesn't work
    too well. Not to sound like a broken record but - try it out before an important occasion.

    Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and
    used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and
    left to set.

    Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it
    makes very flaky pastry.

    Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter
    and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil.
    Corn and peanut oils are both good.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.7 Chocolates

    If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three
    tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat
    (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

    US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the
    darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also
    called bittersweet). What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called
    milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is
    the US dark or UK plain. "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term
    for high quality plain chocolate.

    Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark,"
    "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be
    minor variations on a theme.

    Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates,
    because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.8 Meats

    If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use Cornish game hens

    ----------------------------------------
    1.9 Salt

    There are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt.
    They are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride. Table
    salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea. Sea salt
    is extracted from evaporated sea water.

    From these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing
    somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use. Some of
    them are listed below.

    - Table salt. It is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt)
    and often contains anti-caking agents.

    - Kosher salt. Called so, because it is used for koshering purposes,
    i.e., drawing blood from meat. It is a coarse salt which generally
    contains no additives. Because of the large size of the crystals, about
    twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste
    intensity as would be needed using regular table salt. Many people
    prefer it to the regular table salt.

    - Pickling salt. It is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and
    canning. Like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as
    anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine.

    - Sel gris. Grey sea salt. This kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining various minerals. Produced near the town of Gurande in Brittany,
    France. It is said to smell of the sea. Generally used for seasoning
    already cooked dishes.

    - Fleur de sel. A very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but creamy-white in colour. Harvested from the thin white film that forms
    on the surface of the salt marshes in Brittany. Said to be prized by
    some French chefs. Some other people consider it a marketing gimmick.
    Also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Indian black salt (kala namak). Brown-to-black in colour, it has a
    smoky, sulphuric flavour. Used in some Indian dishes.

    - Hawaiian alaea salt. It takes its name and a reddish colour from the
    red clay (alaea) found along the shores. It is also generally used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Rock salt. Greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing
    many minerals and impurities. Supposed to be inedible, it is used in
    ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads.

    ----------------------------------------
    2 US/UK/metric conversions

    Some of these tables were combined from various sources by Andrew
    Mossberg aem(at)symcor.com, whose sources included Caroline Knight cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com, Fruitbat and the New York City Library Desk Reference. Other tables were compiled from a variety of sources.
    Corrections and additions welcomed!

    ----------------------------------------
    2.1 Oven Temperatures

    An approximate conversion chart(P):-

    Electric Gas mark Description

    Fahrenheit Celsius

    225F 110C 1/4 Very cool/very slow
    250F 130C 1/2
    275F 140C 1 cool
    300F 150C 2
    325F 170C 3 very moderate
    350F 180C 4 moderate
    375F 190C 5
    400F 200C 6 moderately hot
    425F 220C 7 hot
    450F 230C 8
    475F 240C 9 very hot

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2 Food Equivalencies

    Sometimes the sources did not agree... I've given both:-

    British measure American equivalent

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.1 Flours

    flour - white plain/strong/ sifted flour - all-purpose/
    self-raising/unbleached unbleached white
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    5 oz(K)
    wholemeal/stoneground whole wheat
    6 oz(K) 1 cup
    cornflour cornstarch
    4 1/2 oz (P) 1 cup
    5.3 oz (K)
    yellow corn meal/polenta coarse corn meal/polenta
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    rye flour rye flour
    6 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.2 Cereals

    pearl barley pearl barley
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
    berries
    7 oz(K) 1 cup
    semolina/ground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/
    cake crumbs cake crumbs
    2 oz(P) 1 cup
    dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    porridge oats rolled oats
    3 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.3 Sugars

    light/dark soft brown sugar light/dark brown sugar
    8 oz(P) 1 cup (firmly packed)
    castor/caster/granulated sugar granulated sugar
    7 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup
    icing sugar sifted confectioners' sugar
    4 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.4 Fats and cheeses

    butter, margarine, cooking butter, shortening, lard,
    fat, lard, dripping drippings - solid or melted
    1 oz(P) 2 tablespoons
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    grated cheese - cheddar type grated cheese - cheddar type
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    1 lb(K) 4 - 5 cups (packed)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.5 Vegetables and fruit

    onion onion
    1 small to med 1 cup chopped
    shelled peas shelled peas
    4 oz(P) 3/4 cup
    cooked sweet corn cooked sweet corn
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    celery celery
    4 sticks 1 cup (chopped)
    chopped tomatoes chopped tomatoes
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    button mushrooms button mushrooms
    3-4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped pickled beetroot chopped pickled beetroot
    2 oz(P) 1/3 cup
    black/redcurrants/bilberries black/redcurrants/bilberries
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    raspberries/strawberries raspberries/strawberries
    5 oz(P) 1 cup

    Dried beans:
    black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
    white white
    3 1/2 oz(K) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.6 Dried fruit and nuts, etc.

    currants/sultanas/raisins/ currants/sultanas/raisins/
    chopped candied peel chopped candied peel
    5-6 oz(P) 1 cup
    2 oz(K - raisins) 1/3 cup
    glace cherries candied cherries
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    sesame seeds sesame seeds
    3 1/2 oz 3/4 cup
    whole shelled almonds whole shelled almonds
    5 oz(P) 1 cup
    ground almonds ground almonds
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped nuts chopped nuts
    2 oz(K) 1/3 to 1/2 cup

    Nut butters:
    peanut/almond/cashew etc. peanut/almond/cashew etc.
    8 oz(K) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.7 Preserves

    clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/
    molasses/black treacle molasses/black treacle
    12 oz(P) 1 cup
    maple/corn syrup maple/corn syrup
    11 oz(P) 1 cup
    jam/marmalade/jelly jam/marmalade/jelly
    5-6 oz(P) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.8 Egg sizes

    According to the BEIS (British Egg Information Service) Web site, eggs
    in the UK are now sold in four different sizes: Small, Medium, Large and
    Very Large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7).

    UK egg sizes

    New Size Weight Old Size

    Very Large 73g +over Size 0
    Size 1

    Large 63 - 73g Size 1
    Size 2
    Size 3

    Medium 53 - 63g Size 3
    Size 4
    Size 5

    Small 53g +under Size 5
    Size 6
    Size 7

    US egg sizes

    Egg sizes Average weight

    Jumbo 2 1/2 oz (71g)
    Extra-large 2 1/4 oz (64g)
    Large 2 oz (57g)
    Medium 1 3/4 oz (50g)
    Small 1 1/2 oz (43g)
    Peewee 1 1/4 oz (35g)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.3 American Liquid Measures

    1 liquid pint 473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
    1 dry pint 551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
    1 cup 237 ml ( 8 fl oz)
    1 tablespoon 15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
    1 fluid ounce 30 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.4 British Liquid Measures

    1 pint 568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
    1 breakfast cup ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
    1 tea cup 1/3 pint
    1 tablespoon 15 ml
    1 dessertspoon 10 ml
    1 teaspoon 5 ml 1/3 tablespoon

    And from
    "Mastering the art of French cooking". Penguin UK, issue 1961
    UK UK oz Metric ml US oz

    1 quart 40 1140 38.5
    1 pint 20 570
    1 cup 10
    1 gill 5
    1 fluid oz 1 28.4 0.96
    1 tbl 5/8 (1/16 cup) 17.8?
    1 dsp 1/3 10
    1 tsp 1/6 5

    ----------------------------------------
    2.5 British Short Cuts (S)

    Cheese (grated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Cocoa or chocolate powder 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Coconut (desiccated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Flour (unsifted) 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Sugar (castor/caster) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (granulated) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (icing) 1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
    Syrup (golden) 1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops

    From a post on rec.food.cooking by Andrew Nicholson

    BTU - British Thermal Unit

    BTU x 1054 = Joules
    Watts x Seconds = Joules

    BTU = Watts x (Seconds/1054) = Watts x 3.415

    Gas Cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 BTU up
    to 12,000 BTU.

    Electric Cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts.

    To help you compare gas burners to electric elements:

    BTU Watts
    ------- ---------
    100 35
    200 70 <- gas burners lowest setting
    3400 1000
    6500 1900
    8000 2300 <- most electric tops stop here
    10000 2900
    12000 3500

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7 General Conversion Tables

    Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
    (mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements

    standard cup tablespoon teaspoon

    Canada 250ml 15ml 5ml
    Australia 250ml ** 20ml ** 5ml
    New Zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml
    UK 250ml 15ml 5ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.2 Weight

    1 ounce = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
    1 pound = 454 g
    1 kg = 2.2 pounds

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements

    1 litre = 1.057 quarts
    2.1 pints
    1 quart = 0.95 litre
    1 gallon= 3.8 litres
    1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
    1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
    1/3 " = 0.8 dl = 78 ml
    1/2 " = 1.2 dl = 120 ml
    2/3 " = 1.6 dl = 160 ml
    3/4 " = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
    7/8 " = 2.1 dl = 210 ml
    1 cup = 2.4 dl = 240 ml
    1 dl = 2/5 cup
    = 6 to 7 tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous

    1 UK pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
    1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz.

    a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is
    1/2 cup US.
    each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in
    US recipes weighs about 50 g.
    there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

    Gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form. The
    following is from a post by Sophie Laplante.

    It looks like there are different size sheets, and different size
    packets (US vs Europe). So the only way to go is to convert by weight.
    In France, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the UK
    it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the US.

    One Knox powdered gelatine envelope (US) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams.

    1 (US) envelope = 7 g,
    = 7 1-gram sheets,
    = 4 1.66-gram sheets,
    = 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets.

    1 (Europe) envelope = 11 g
    = 11 1-gram sheets,
    = 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets
    = 5 2-gram sheets

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart

    This chart was once posted by T. Terrell Banks who got it from a now
    forgotten source. It was then preserved on William Chuang's Web site.

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- allspice 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 almonds, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 almonds, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 anchovies 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 apples, dried 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 apples, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 apricots, dried 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 arrowroot 0.95 1.05 4.8 14.3 27 225 2.0 4.4 bacon fat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking powder 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking soda 0.87 1.15 4.3 13.0 24 205 2.2 4.9 bamboo shoots 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 bananas, mashed 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 bananas, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 barley, uncooked 0.78 1.28 3.9 11.8 22 185 2.5 5.4 basil, dried 0.11 9.44 0.5 1.6 3 25 18.1 40.0 beans, dried 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 beef, cooked 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 beef, raw 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 biscuit mix (Bisquick) 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 blue corn meal 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 bran, unsifted 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 brazil nuts, whole 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 bread crumbs, fresh 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 bread crumbs, packaged 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 buckwheat groats 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 butter 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3

    [continued in next message]

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  • From Victor Sack@21:1/5 to All on Thu Apr 21 22:49:24 2016
    XPost: rec.food.cooking, rec.answers, news.answers

    Archive-name: cooking/faq
    Maintained-by: Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    LAST UPDATED 20 July, 2013

    - Capers (section 3)

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------- |Copyright Victor Sack 2003-2016, Copyright Mary Frye and Victor |
    |Sack 1999-2003, Copyright Amy Gale 1993-1999, Copyright Cindy | |Kandolf 1992-1993. All Rights Reserved. Portions Copyright by |
    |their particular authors. |
    | |
    |This FAQ may be cited as "The rec.food.cooking FAQ and conversion file|
    |as of <date>, available in rtfm.mit.edu FAQ archives as /cooking/faq" |
    | | |Permission to reproduce this document, or any whole section or | |substantial part (unless it was you who wrote it!) for profit is | |explicitly not granted. Permission to distribute free of charge or |
    |with charges only to cover the cost of reproduction is granted, | |provided credits remain intact. This paragraph and the two above |
    |must also be included, and the same restrictions apply to subsequent |
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    ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    An easier-to-navigate frames version of the FAQ is available at http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/rfc_faq.html

    Welcome to the rec.food.cooking FAQ list and conversion helper!

    The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different
    countries communicate with one another. The problem is that
    measurements and terms for food vary from country to country,
    even if both countries speak English.

    However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list.
    You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. Try
    not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the
    product. If you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication
    of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume.

    A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery
    store is called a kiwi fruit. Whoever said "A pint's a pound the world
    around" must have believed the US was on another planet. And cast iron
    pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion!

    If you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read
    the guides to the Net and the Net etiquette which are posted to news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions regularly.
    They are also available via anonymous FTP from ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/announce/newusers/
    or from
    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/news/newusers/questions/.
    In particular, you are strongly encouraged to read the following
    postings:

    What is Usenet?
    <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/what-is/part1/>

    A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/primer/part1>

    Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/faq/part1/>

    Rules for posting to Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/posting-rules/part1/>

    Hints on writing style for Usenet <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/writing-style/part1/>

    Advertising on Usenet: How To Do It, How Not To Do It <http://www.faqs.org/faqs/usenet/advertising/how-to/part1/>

    How To Find the Right Place To Post <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/finding-groups/general>

    The moderators of news.newusers.questions maintain an excellent Web site
    with helpful links to basic Usenet information. The site is at http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/.

    The traditionally accepted quoting style is discussed at <http://www.anta.net/misc/nnq/nquote.shtml>.

    Another excellent introduction to Usenet is available from <http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_6.html>.

    You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as
    know about smileys, followups and when to reply by email to postings.

    This FAQ is currently posted to rec.food.cooking, news.answers,
    rec.answers and rec.food.recipes. All posts to news.answers are
    archived, and it is possible to retrieve the last posted copy via
    anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/rec.food.cooking. Those
    without FTP access should send e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with
    "send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the body to find out how
    to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

    This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, and has been extended
    and maintained by Amy Gale since 1993. In August 1999, Maryf and Victor
    Sack have taken over the FAQ maintaining. In July 2003, Victor Sack
    became the sole maintainer. The FAQ has always benefited from
    contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. Credits appear at
    the end.

    Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then
    the section number. This should make searching for a specific section
    easy.

    Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have
    many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it,
    and see.

    Comments, corrections and changes to:
    Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    ----------------------------------------
    List of Answers

    1 Substitutions and Equivalents
    1.1 Flours
    1.2 Leavening Agents
    1.3 Dairy Products
    1.4 Starches
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners
    1.6 Fats
    1.7 Chocolates
    1.8 Meats
    1.9 Salt
    2 US/UK/metric conversions
    2.1 Oven temperatures
    2.2 Food equivalencies
    2.2.1 Flours
    2.2.2 Cereals
    2.2.3 Sugars
    2.2.4 Fats and Cheeses
    2.2.5 Vegetables and Fruit
    2.2.6 Dried Fruit and Nuts
    2.2.7 Preserves
    2.2.8 Egg sizes
    2.3 American liquid measures
    2.4 British liquid measures
    2.5 British short cuts
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops
    2.7 General Conversion Tables
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements
    2.7.2 Weight
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions
    2.8.1 Metric Cups
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons
    2.9 Catties
    2.10 Some Old Measurements
    2.11 Authorities
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms
    4 Cooking Methods
    4.1 Poaching
    4.2 Frying
    4.3 Sauting (and deglazing)
    4.4 Broiling
    4.5 Caramelising (of onions)
    4.6 Braising
    4.7 Cooking with alcohol
    4.8 Roasting
    5 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment
    5.1 Woks
    5.2 Cast Iron
    6 History and Lore of rec.food.cooking
    6.1 Origins of rec.food.cooking
    6.2 Some Higlights in the Life of rec.food.cooking
    6.3 What's all this about xxxx?
    7 This has come up once too often
    8 Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
    8.1 Recipe archives
    8.2 Other cooking/food sites
    9 Food newsgroups and mailing lists
    9.1 rec.food.cooking
    9.2 rec.food.recipes
    9.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.restaurants
    9.4 rec.food.veg
    9.5 rec.food.veg.cooking
    9.6 rec.food.preserving
    9.7 also...
    9.8 mailing lists
    10 Other culinary FAQs
    10.1 Foods
    10.2 Beverages
    10.3 Religion, lifestyle and special diets
    10.4 Miscellaneous
    10.5 Humour
    11 "Unofficial" rec.food.cooking Web site
    12 Sources
    12.1 Contributors
    12.2 Bibliography

    ----------------------------------------
    1 Substitutions and Equivalents

    This section contains information on where substitutions can be made,
    and what they can be made with.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.1 Flours

    US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one
    another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is
    not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour
    and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.

    Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2
    teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. Some brands in some regions don't
    contain salt.

    US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.2 Leavening agents

    Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic
    ingredients to work. Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered
    acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.3 Dairy Products

    Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are
    thick and a weird colour... but are not, as I thought when I was small,
    the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed
    with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but
    this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons
    dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup
    granulated sugar. If you're not sure whether it is available in your
    market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "Good Luck"
    is apparently a common brand in North America.

    If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour
    milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of
    vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't
    stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

    The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
    (UK) (US)
    Clotted Cream 55%
    Double Cream 48%
    Heavy Cream 36%
    Whipping Cream 35% 30%
    Whipped Cream 35%
    Single Cream 18% (=Light Cream)
    Half Cream 12% (=Half and Half*)

    * Half and Half has only 10% butterfat in British Columbia.

    For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3.

    Quark (aka quarg) [7]
    A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream,
    Quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat. Though the calories
    are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than
    that of lowfat sour cream. It has a milder flavour and richer texture
    than lowfat yoghurt. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to
    top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes
    including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.4 Starches

    UK cornflour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its
    name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It
    often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

    In the US, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal. If in doubt about
    which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it
    to you! A couple of rules of thumb:
    - in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch
    - as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground
    cornmeal

    Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour!
    What one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to
    cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

    Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be
    used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.

    If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount
    of all-purpose/plain flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it
    to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners

    UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.
    There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the
    same as UK castor/caster sugar. It is called "berry sugar" in British Columbia. Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but I've got reports of times this
    didn't work so well! As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the
    substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

    (US) Confectioner's sugar is (UK/Aust/NZ) icing sugar. Sometimes these
    are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch).
    This can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan.

    Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden)
    syrup can be substituted.

    Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. Light corn syrup is
    just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. Some people have
    substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found
    it successful. A common US brand is Karo.

    Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane
    sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight
    acidic, metallic component. Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in rec.food.cooking, the New Zealand brand name is Chelsea.

    If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2
    parts sugar, 1 part water. This could be messy. You may want to thin
    it out with water. Again, you may want to try this out on your own
    before making something for a special occasion.

    Black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.6 Fats

    Shortening is any fat used to make pastry short.
    A popular brand name is Crisco, solid white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil, and many people call all shortening Crisco. It is
    common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe.
    In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute butter or
    margarine for Crisco. The result will have a slightly different
    texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say, chocolate
    chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). Sometimes this doesn't work
    too well. Not to sound like a broken record but - try it out before an important occasion.

    Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and
    used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and
    left to set.

    Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it
    makes very flaky pastry.

    Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter
    and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil.
    Corn and peanut oils are both good.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.7 Chocolates

    If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three
    tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat
    (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

    US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the
    darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also
    called bittersweet). What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called
    milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is
    the US dark or UK plain. "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term
    for high quality plain chocolate.

    Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark,"
    "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be
    minor variations on a theme.

    Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates,
    because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.8 Meats

    If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use Cornish game hens

    ----------------------------------------
    1.9 Salt

    There are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt.
    They are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride. Table
    salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea. Sea salt
    is extracted from evaporated sea water.

    From these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing
    somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use. Some of
    them are listed below.

    - Table salt. It is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt)
    and often contains anti-caking agents.

    - Kosher salt. Called so, because it is used for koshering purposes,
    i.e., drawing blood from meat. It is a coarse salt which generally
    contains no additives. Because of the large size of the crystals, about
    twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste
    intensity as would be needed using regular table salt. Many people
    prefer it to the regular table salt.

    - Pickling salt. It is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and
    canning. Like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as
    anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine.

    - Sel gris. Grey sea salt. This kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining various minerals. Produced near the town of Gurande in Brittany,
    France. It is said to smell of the sea. Generally used for seasoning
    already cooked dishes.

    - Fleur de sel. A very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but creamy-white in colour. Harvested from the thin white film that forms
    on the surface of the salt marshes in Brittany. Said to be prized by
    some French chefs. Some other people consider it a marketing gimmick.
    Also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Indian black salt (kala namak). Brown-to-black in colour, it has a
    smoky, sulphuric flavour. Used in some Indian dishes.

    - Hawaiian alaea salt. It takes its name and a reddish colour from the
    red clay (alaea) found along the shores. It is also generally used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Rock salt. Greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing
    many minerals and impurities. Supposed to be inedible, it is used in
    ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads.

    ----------------------------------------
    2 US/UK/metric conversions

    Some of these tables were combined from various sources by Andrew
    Mossberg aem(at)symcor.com, whose sources included Caroline Knight cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com, Fruitbat and the New York City Library Desk Reference. Other tables were compiled from a variety of sources.
    Corrections and additions welcomed!

    ----------------------------------------
    2.1 Oven Temperatures

    An approximate conversion chart(P):-

    Electric Gas mark Description

    Fahrenheit Celsius

    225F 110C 1/4 Very cool/very slow
    250F 130C 1/2
    275F 140C 1 cool
    300F 150C 2
    325F 170C 3 very moderate
    350F 180C 4 moderate
    375F 190C 5
    400F 200C 6 moderately hot
    425F 220C 7 hot
    450F 230C 8
    475F 240C 9 very hot

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2 Food Equivalencies

    Sometimes the sources did not agree... I've given both:-

    British measure American equivalent

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.1 Flours

    flour - white plain/strong/ sifted flour - all-purpose/
    self-raising/unbleached unbleached white
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    5 oz(K)
    wholemeal/stoneground whole wheat
    6 oz(K) 1 cup
    cornflour cornstarch
    4 1/2 oz (P) 1 cup
    5.3 oz (K)
    yellow corn meal/polenta coarse corn meal/polenta
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    rye flour rye flour
    6 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.2 Cereals

    pearl barley pearl barley
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
    berries
    7 oz(K) 1 cup
    semolina/ground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/
    cake crumbs cake crumbs
    2 oz(P) 1 cup
    dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    porridge oats rolled oats
    3 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.3 Sugars

    light/dark soft brown sugar light/dark brown sugar
    8 oz(P) 1 cup (firmly packed)
    castor/caster/granulated sugar granulated sugar
    7 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup
    icing sugar sifted confectioners' sugar
    4 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.4 Fats and cheeses

    butter, margarine, cooking butter, shortening, lard,
    fat, lard, dripping drippings - solid or melted
    1 oz(P) 2 tablespoons
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    grated cheese - cheddar type grated cheese - cheddar type
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    1 lb(K) 4 - 5 cups (packed)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.5 Vegetables and fruit

    onion onion
    1 small to med 1 cup chopped
    shelled peas shelled peas
    4 oz(P) 3/4 cup
    cooked sweet corn cooked sweet corn
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    celery celery
    4 sticks 1 cup (chopped)
    chopped tomatoes chopped tomatoes
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    button mushrooms button mushrooms
    3-4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped pickled beetroot chopped pickled beetroot
    2 oz(P) 1/3 cup
    black/redcurrants/bilberries black/redcurrants/bilberries
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    raspberries/strawberries raspberries/strawberries
    5 oz(P) 1 cup

    Dried beans:
    black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
    white white
    3 1/2 oz(K) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.6 Dried fruit and nuts, etc.

    currants/sultanas/raisins/ currants/sultanas/raisins/
    chopped candied peel chopped candied peel
    5-6 oz(P) 1 cup
    2 oz(K - raisins) 1/3 cup
    glace cherries candied cherries
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    sesame seeds sesame seeds
    3 1/2 oz 3/4 cup
    whole shelled almonds whole shelled almonds
    5 oz(P) 1 cup
    ground almonds ground almonds
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped nuts chopped nuts
    2 oz(K) 1/3 to 1/2 cup

    Nut butters:
    peanut/almond/cashew etc. peanut/almond/cashew etc.
    8 oz(K) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.7 Preserves

    clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/
    molasses/black treacle molasses/black treacle
    12 oz(P) 1 cup
    maple/corn syrup maple/corn syrup
    11 oz(P) 1 cup
    jam/marmalade/jelly jam/marmalade/jelly
    5-6 oz(P) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.8 Egg sizes

    According to the BEIS (British Egg Information Service) Web site, eggs
    in the UK are now sold in four different sizes: Small, Medium, Large and
    Very Large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7).

    UK egg sizes

    New Size Weight Old Size

    Very Large 73g +over Size 0
    Size 1

    Large 63 - 73g Size 1
    Size 2
    Size 3

    Medium 53 - 63g Size 3
    Size 4
    Size 5

    Small 53g +under Size 5
    Size 6
    Size 7

    US egg sizes

    Egg sizes Average weight

    Jumbo 2 1/2 oz (71g)
    Extra-large 2 1/4 oz (64g)
    Large 2 oz (57g)
    Medium 1 3/4 oz (50g)
    Small 1 1/2 oz (43g)
    Peewee 1 1/4 oz (35g)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.3 American Liquid Measures

    1 liquid pint 473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
    1 dry pint 551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
    1 cup 237 ml ( 8 fl oz)
    1 tablespoon 15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
    1 fluid ounce 30 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.4 British Liquid Measures

    1 pint 568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
    1 breakfast cup ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
    1 tea cup 1/3 pint
    1 tablespoon 15 ml
    1 dessertspoon 10 ml
    1 teaspoon 5 ml 1/3 tablespoon

    And from
    "Mastering the art of French cooking". Penguin UK, issue 1961
    UK UK oz Metric ml US oz

    1 quart 40 1140 38.5
    1 pint 20 570
    1 cup 10
    1 gill 5
    1 fluid oz 1 28.4 0.96
    1 tbl 5/8 (1/16 cup) 17.8?
    1 dsp 1/3 10
    1 tsp 1/6 5

    ----------------------------------------
    2.5 British Short Cuts (S)

    Cheese (grated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Cocoa or chocolate powder 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Coconut (desiccated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Flour (unsifted) 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Sugar (castor/caster) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (granulated) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (icing) 1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
    Syrup (golden) 1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops

    From a post on rec.food.cooking by Andrew Nicholson

    BTU - British Thermal Unit

    BTU x 1054 = Joules
    Watts x Seconds = Joules

    BTU = Watts x (Seconds/1054) = Watts x 3.415

    Gas Cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 BTU up
    to 12,000 BTU.

    Electric Cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts.

    To help you compare gas burners to electric elements:

    BTU Watts
    ------- ---------
    100 35
    200 70 <- gas burners lowest setting
    3400 1000
    6500 1900
    8000 2300 <- most electric tops stop here
    10000 2900
    12000 3500

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7 General Conversion Tables

    Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
    (mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements

    standard cup tablespoon teaspoon

    Canada 250ml 15ml 5ml
    Australia 250ml ** 20ml ** 5ml
    New Zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml
    UK 250ml 15ml 5ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.2 Weight

    1 ounce = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
    1 pound = 454 g
    1 kg = 2.2 pounds

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements

    1 litre = 1.057 quarts
    2.1 pints
    1 quart = 0.95 litre
    1 gallon= 3.8 litres
    1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
    1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
    1/3 " = 0.8 dl = 78 ml
    1/2 " = 1.2 dl = 120 ml
    2/3 " = 1.6 dl = 160 ml
    3/4 " = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
    7/8 " = 2.1 dl = 210 ml
    1 cup = 2.4 dl = 240 ml
    1 dl = 2/5 cup
    = 6 to 7 tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous

    1 UK pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
    1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz.

    a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is
    1/2 cup US.
    each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in
    US recipes weighs about 50 g.
    there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

    Gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form. The
    following is from a post by Sophie Laplante.

    It looks like there are different size sheets, and different size
    packets (US vs Europe). So the only way to go is to convert by weight.
    In France, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the UK
    it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the US.

    One Knox powdered gelatine envelope (US) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams.

    1 (US) envelope = 7 g,
    = 7 1-gram sheets,
    = 4 1.66-gram sheets,
    = 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets.

    1 (Europe) envelope = 11 g
    = 11 1-gram sheets,
    = 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets
    = 5 2-gram sheets

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart

    This chart was once posted by T. Terrell Banks who got it from a now
    forgotten source. It was then preserved on William Chuang's Web site.

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- allspice 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 almonds, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 almonds, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 anchovies 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 apples, dried 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 apples, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 apricots, dried 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 arrowroot 0.95 1.05 4.8 14.3 27 225 2.0 4.4 bacon fat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking powder 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking soda 0.87 1.15 4.3 13.0 24 205 2.2 4.9 bamboo shoots 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 bananas, mashed 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 bananas, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 barley, uncooked 0.78 1.28 3.9 11.8 22 185 2.5 5.4 basil, dried 0.11 9.44 0.5 1.6 3 25 18.1 40.0 beans, dried 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 beef, cooked 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 beef, raw 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 biscuit mix (Bisquick) 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 blue corn meal 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 bran, unsifted 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 brazil nuts, whole 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 bread crumbs, fresh 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 bread crumbs, packaged 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 buckwheat groats 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 butter 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3

    [continued in next message]

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    LAST UPDATED 20 July, 2013

    - Capers (section 3)

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    An easier-to-navigate frames version of the FAQ is available at http://vsack.homepage.t-online.de/rfc_faq.html

    Welcome to the rec.food.cooking FAQ list and conversion helper!

    The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different
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    measurements and terms for food vary from country to country,
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    However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list.
    You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible. Try
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    A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery
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    You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as
    know about smileys, followups and when to reply by email to postings.

    This FAQ is currently posted to rec.food.cooking, news.answers,
    rec.answers and rec.food.recipes. All posts to news.answers are
    archived, and it is possible to retrieve the last posted copy via
    anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu as /pub/usenet/rec.food.cooking. Those
    without FTP access should send e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with
    "send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the body to find out how
    to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

    This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, and has been extended
    and maintained by Amy Gale since 1993. In August 1999, Maryf and Victor
    Sack have taken over the FAQ maintaining. In July 2003, Victor Sack
    became the sole maintainer. The FAQ has always benefited from
    contributions by readers of rec.food.cooking. Credits appear at
    the end.

    Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then
    the section number. This should make searching for a specific section
    easy.

    Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have
    many people on rec.food.cooking who are able to answer them - try it,
    and see.

    Comments, corrections and changes to:
    Victor Sack <cooking.faq@mac.com>

    ----------------------------------------
    List of Answers

    1 Substitutions and Equivalents
    1.1 Flours
    1.2 Leavening Agents
    1.3 Dairy Products
    1.4 Starches
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners
    1.6 Fats
    1.7 Chocolates
    1.8 Meats
    1.9 Salt
    2 US/UK/metric conversions
    2.1 Oven temperatures
    2.2 Food equivalencies
    2.2.1 Flours
    2.2.2 Cereals
    2.2.3 Sugars
    2.2.4 Fats and Cheeses
    2.2.5 Vegetables and Fruit
    2.2.6 Dried Fruit and Nuts
    2.2.7 Preserves
    2.2.8 Egg sizes
    2.3 American liquid measures
    2.4 British liquid measures
    2.5 British short cuts
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops
    2.7 General Conversion Tables
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements
    2.7.2 Weight
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart
    2.8 Some Australian Conversions
    2.8.1 Metric Cups
    2.8.2 Metric Spoons
    2.9 Catties
    2.10 Some Old Measurements
    2.11 Authorities
    3 Glossary of Culinary Terms
    4 Cooking Methods
    4.1 Poaching
    4.2 Frying
    4.3 Sauting (and deglazing)
    4.4 Broiling
    4.5 Caramelising (of onions)
    4.6 Braising
    4.7 Cooking with alcohol
    4.8 Roasting
    5 Distilled Wisdom on Equipment
    5.1 Woks
    5.2 Cast Iron
    6 History and Lore of rec.food.cooking
    6.1 Origins of rec.food.cooking
    6.2 Some Higlights in the Life of rec.food.cooking
    6.3 What's all this about xxxx?
    7 This has come up once too often
    8 Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
    8.1 Recipe archives
    8.2 Other cooking/food sites
    9 Food newsgroups and mailing lists
    9.1 rec.food.cooking
    9.2 rec.food.recipes
    9.3 rec.food.drink, rec.food.restaurants
    9.4 rec.food.veg
    9.5 rec.food.veg.cooking
    9.6 rec.food.preserving
    9.7 also...
    9.8 mailing lists
    10 Other culinary FAQs
    10.1 Foods
    10.2 Beverages
    10.3 Religion, lifestyle and special diets
    10.4 Miscellaneous
    10.5 Humour
    11 "Unofficial" rec.food.cooking Web site
    12 Sources
    12.1 Contributors
    12.2 Bibliography

    ----------------------------------------
    1 Substitutions and Equivalents

    This section contains information on where substitutions can be made,
    and what they can be made with.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.1 Flours

    US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one
    another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is
    not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour
    and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.

    Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2
    teaspoon salt for each cup of flour. Some brands in some regions don't
    contain salt.

    US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.2 Leavening agents

    Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic
    ingredients to work. Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered
    acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.3 Dairy Products

    Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are
    thick and a weird colour... but are not, as I thought when I was small,
    the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed
    with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn't found everywhere, but
    this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons
    dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup
    granulated sugar. If you're not sure whether it is available in your
    market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "Good Luck"
    is apparently a common brand in North America.

    If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour
    milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of
    vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don't
    stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

    The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
    (UK) (US)
    Clotted Cream 55%
    Double Cream 48%
    Heavy Cream 36%
    Whipping Cream 35% 30%
    Whipped Cream 35%
    Single Cream 18% (=Light Cream)
    Half Cream 12% (=Half and Half*)

    * Half and Half has only 10% butterfat in British Columbia.

    For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3.

    Quark (aka quarg) [7]
    A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream,
    Quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat. Though the calories
    are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than
    that of lowfat sour cream. It has a milder flavour and richer texture
    than lowfat yoghurt. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to
    top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes
    including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.4 Starches

    UK cornflour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its
    name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It
    often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

    In the US, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal. If in doubt about
    which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it
    to you! A couple of rules of thumb:
    - in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch
    - as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground
    cornmeal

    Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour!
    What one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to
    cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

    Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be
    used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.

    If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount
    of all-purpose/plain flour. However, unless whatever you're adding it
    to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.5 Sugar and other sweeteners

    UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.
    There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the
    same as UK castor/caster sugar. It is called "berry sugar" in British Columbia. Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but I've got reports of times this
    didn't work so well! As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the
    substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

    (US) Confectioner's sugar is (UK/Aust/NZ) icing sugar. Sometimes these
    are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch).
    This can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan.

    Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden)
    syrup can be substituted.

    Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light. Light corn syrup is
    just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour. Some people have
    substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found
    it successful. A common US brand is Karo.

    Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane
    sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight
    acidic, metallic component. Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in rec.food.cooking, the New Zealand brand name is Chelsea.

    If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2
    parts sugar, 1 part water. This could be messy. You may want to thin
    it out with water. Again, you may want to try this out on your own
    before making something for a special occasion.

    Black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.6 Fats

    Shortening is any fat used to make pastry short.
    A popular brand name is Crisco, solid white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil, and many people call all shortening Crisco. It is
    common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe.
    In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute butter or
    margarine for Crisco. The result will have a slightly different
    texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say, chocolate
    chip cookies seems to be an advantage!). Sometimes this doesn't work
    too well. Not to sound like a broken record but - try it out before an important occasion.

    Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and
    used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and
    left to set.

    Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it
    makes very flaky pastry.

    Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter
    and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil.
    Corn and peanut oils are both good.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.7 Chocolates

    If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three
    tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat
    (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

    US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the
    darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also
    called bittersweet). What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called
    milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as "chocolate". The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is
    the US dark or UK plain. "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term
    for high quality plain chocolate.

    Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark,"
    "semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be
    minor variations on a theme.

    Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates,
    because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

    ----------------------------------------
    1.8 Meats

    If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use Cornish game hens

    ----------------------------------------
    1.9 Salt

    There are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt.
    They are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride. Table
    salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea. Sea salt
    is extracted from evaporated sea water.

    From these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing
    somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use. Some of
    them are listed below.

    - Table salt. It is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt)
    and often contains anti-caking agents.

    - Kosher salt. Called so, because it is used for koshering purposes,
    i.e., drawing blood from meat. It is a coarse salt which generally
    contains no additives. Because of the large size of the crystals, about
    twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste
    intensity as would be needed using regular table salt. Many people
    prefer it to the regular table salt.

    - Pickling salt. It is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and
    canning. Like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as
    anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine.

    - Sel gris. Grey sea salt. This kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining various minerals. Produced near the town of Gurande in Brittany,
    France. It is said to smell of the sea. Generally used for seasoning
    already cooked dishes.

    - Fleur de sel. A very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but creamy-white in colour. Harvested from the thin white film that forms
    on the surface of the salt marshes in Brittany. Said to be prized by
    some French chefs. Some other people consider it a marketing gimmick.
    Also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Indian black salt (kala namak). Brown-to-black in colour, it has a
    smoky, sulphuric flavour. Used in some Indian dishes.

    - Hawaiian alaea salt. It takes its name and a reddish colour from the
    red clay (alaea) found along the shores. It is also generally used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

    - Rock salt. Greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing
    many minerals and impurities. Supposed to be inedible, it is used in
    ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads.

    ----------------------------------------
    2 US/UK/metric conversions

    Some of these tables were combined from various sources by Andrew
    Mossberg aem(at)symcor.com, whose sources included Caroline Knight cdfk(at)otter.hpl.hp.com, Fruitbat and the New York City Library Desk Reference. Other tables were compiled from a variety of sources.
    Corrections and additions welcomed!

    ----------------------------------------
    2.1 Oven Temperatures

    An approximate conversion chart(P):-

    Electric Gas mark Description

    Fahrenheit Celsius

    225F 110C 1/4 Very cool/very slow
    250F 130C 1/2
    275F 140C 1 cool
    300F 150C 2
    325F 170C 3 very moderate
    350F 180C 4 moderate
    375F 190C 5
    400F 200C 6 moderately hot
    425F 220C 7 hot
    450F 230C 8
    475F 240C 9 very hot

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2 Food Equivalencies

    Sometimes the sources did not agree... I've given both:-

    British measure American equivalent

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.1 Flours

    flour - white plain/strong/ sifted flour - all-purpose/
    self-raising/unbleached unbleached white
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    5 oz(K)
    wholemeal/stoneground whole wheat
    6 oz(K) 1 cup
    cornflour cornstarch
    4 1/2 oz (P) 1 cup
    5.3 oz (K)
    yellow corn meal/polenta coarse corn meal/polenta
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    rye flour rye flour
    6 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.2 Cereals

    pearl barley pearl barley
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
    berries
    7 oz(K) 1 cup
    semolina/ground rice/tapioca semolina/ground rice/tapioca
    6 oz(P) 1 cup
    fresh soft breadcrumbs/ fresh soft breadcrumbs/
    cake crumbs cake crumbs
    2 oz(P) 1 cup
    dried breadcrumbs dried breadcrumbs
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    porridge oats rolled oats
    3 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.3 Sugars

    light/dark soft brown sugar light/dark brown sugar
    8 oz(P) 1 cup (firmly packed)
    castor/caster/granulated sugar granulated sugar
    7 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup
    icing sugar sifted confectioners' sugar
    4 1/2 oz(P) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.4 Fats and cheeses

    butter, margarine, cooking butter, shortening, lard,
    fat, lard, dripping drippings - solid or melted
    1 oz(P) 2 tablespoons
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    grated cheese - cheddar type grated cheese - cheddar type
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    1 lb(K) 4 - 5 cups (packed)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.5 Vegetables and fruit

    onion onion
    1 small to med 1 cup chopped
    shelled peas shelled peas
    4 oz(P) 3/4 cup
    cooked sweet corn cooked sweet corn
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    celery celery
    4 sticks 1 cup (chopped)
    chopped tomatoes chopped tomatoes
    7 oz(P) 1 cup
    button mushrooms button mushrooms
    3-4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped pickled beetroot chopped pickled beetroot
    2 oz(P) 1/3 cup
    black/redcurrants/bilberries black/redcurrants/bilberries
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    raspberries/strawberries raspberries/strawberries
    5 oz(P) 1 cup

    Dried beans:
    black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
    white white
    3 1/2 oz(K) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.6 Dried fruit and nuts, etc.

    currants/sultanas/raisins/ currants/sultanas/raisins/
    chopped candied peel chopped candied peel
    5-6 oz(P) 1 cup
    2 oz(K - raisins) 1/3 cup
    glace cherries candied cherries
    8 oz(P) 1 cup
    sesame seeds sesame seeds
    3 1/2 oz 3/4 cup
    whole shelled almonds whole shelled almonds
    5 oz(P) 1 cup
    ground almonds ground almonds
    4 oz(P) 1 cup
    chopped nuts chopped nuts
    2 oz(K) 1/3 to 1/2 cup

    Nut butters:
    peanut/almond/cashew etc. peanut/almond/cashew etc.
    8 oz(K) 1 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.7 Preserves

    clear honey/golden syrup/ clear honey/golden syrup/
    molasses/black treacle molasses/black treacle
    12 oz(P) 1 cup
    maple/corn syrup maple/corn syrup
    11 oz(P) 1 cup
    jam/marmalade/jelly jam/marmalade/jelly
    5-6 oz(P) 1/2 cup

    ----------------------------------------
    2.2.8 Egg sizes

    According to the BEIS (British Egg Information Service) Web site, eggs
    in the UK are now sold in four different sizes: Small, Medium, Large and
    Very Large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7).

    UK egg sizes

    New Size Weight Old Size

    Very Large 73g +over Size 0
    Size 1

    Large 63 - 73g Size 1
    Size 2
    Size 3

    Medium 53 - 63g Size 3
    Size 4
    Size 5

    Small 53g +under Size 5
    Size 6
    Size 7

    US egg sizes

    Egg sizes Average weight

    Jumbo 2 1/2 oz (71g)
    Extra-large 2 1/4 oz (64g)
    Large 2 oz (57g)
    Medium 1 3/4 oz (50g)
    Small 1 1/2 oz (43g)
    Peewee 1 1/4 oz (35g)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.3 American Liquid Measures

    1 liquid pint 473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
    1 dry pint 551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
    1 cup 237 ml ( 8 fl oz)
    1 tablespoon 15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
    1 fluid ounce 30 ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.4 British Liquid Measures

    1 pint 568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
    1 breakfast cup ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
    1 tea cup 1/3 pint
    1 tablespoon 15 ml
    1 dessertspoon 10 ml
    1 teaspoon 5 ml 1/3 tablespoon

    And from
    "Mastering the art of French cooking". Penguin UK, issue 1961
    UK UK oz Metric ml US oz

    1 quart 40 1140 38.5
    1 pint 20 570
    1 cup 10
    1 gill 5
    1 fluid oz 1 28.4 0.96
    1 tbl 5/8 (1/16 cup) 17.8?
    1 dsp 1/3 10
    1 tsp 1/6 5

    ----------------------------------------
    2.5 British Short Cuts (S)

    Cheese (grated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Cocoa or chocolate powder 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Coconut (desiccated) 1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
    Flour (unsifted) 1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
    Sugar (castor/caster) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (granulated) 1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
    (icing) 1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
    Syrup (golden) 1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.6 Energy output of cooktops

    From a post on rec.food.cooking by Andrew Nicholson

    BTU - British Thermal Unit

    BTU x 1054 = Joules
    Watts x Seconds = Joules

    BTU = Watts x (Seconds/1054) = Watts x 3.415

    Gas Cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 BTU up
    to 12,000 BTU.

    Electric Cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts.

    To help you compare gas burners to electric elements:

    BTU Watts
    ------- ---------
    100 35
    200 70 <- gas burners lowest setting
    3400 1000
    6500 1900
    8000 2300 <- most electric tops stop here
    10000 2900
    12000 3500

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7 General Conversion Tables

    Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
    (mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.1 International Liquid Measurements

    standard cup tablespoon teaspoon

    Canada 250ml 15ml 5ml
    Australia 250ml ** 20ml ** 5ml
    New Zealand 250ml 15ml 5ml
    UK 250ml 15ml 5ml

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.2 Weight

    1 ounce = 28.4 g (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
    1 pound = 454 g
    1 kg = 2.2 pounds

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.3 US Liquid Measurements

    1 litre = 1.057 quarts
    2.1 pints
    1 quart = 0.95 litre
    1 gallon= 3.8 litres
    1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
    1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
    1/3 " = 0.8 dl = 78 ml
    1/2 " = 1.2 dl = 120 ml
    2/3 " = 1.6 dl = 160 ml
    3/4 " = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
    7/8 " = 2.1 dl = 210 ml
    1 cup = 2.4 dl = 240 ml
    1 dl = 2/5 cup
    = 6 to 7 tablespoons

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.4 Miscellaneous

    1 UK pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
    1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz.

    a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is
    1/2 cup US.
    each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in
    US recipes weighs about 50 g.
    there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

    Gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form. The
    following is from a post by Sophie Laplante.

    It looks like there are different size sheets, and different size
    packets (US vs Europe). So the only way to go is to convert by weight.
    In France, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the UK
    it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the US.

    One Knox powdered gelatine envelope (US) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams.

    1 (US) envelope = 7 g,
    = 7 1-gram sheets,
    = 4 1.66-gram sheets,
    = 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets.

    1 (Europe) envelope = 11 g
    = 11 1-gram sheets,
    = 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets
    = 5 2-gram sheets

    ----------------------------------------
    2.7.5 Weight/Volume Conversion Chart

    This chart was once posted by T. Terrell Banks who got it from a now
    forgotten source. It was then preserved on William Chuang's Web site.

    g/ ml/ g/ g/ g/ g/ cups/ cups/
    substance ml g tsp Tbsp floz cup lb kg ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- allspice 0.42 2.36 2.1 6.4 12 100 4.5 10.0 almonds, ground 0.36 2.78 1.8 5.4 10 85 5.3 11.8 almonds, whole 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 anchovies 1.02 0.98 5.1 15.3 28 240 1.9 4.2 apples, dried 0.38 2.62 1.9 5.7 10 90 5.0 11.1 apples, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 apricots, dried 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 arrowroot 0.95 1.05 4.8 14.3 27 225 2.0 4.4 bacon fat 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking powder 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 baking soda 0.87 1.15 4.3 13.0 24 205 2.2 4.9 bamboo shoots 1.14 0.87 5.7 17.2 32 270 1.7 3.7 bananas, mashed 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 bananas, sliced 0.76 1.31 3.8 11.4 21 180 2.5 5.6 barley, uncooked 0.78 1.28 3.9 11.8 22 185 2.5 5.4 basil, dried 0.11 9.44 0.5 1.6 3 25 18.1 40.0 beans, dried 0.85 1.18 4.2 12.7 24 200 2.3 5.0 beef, cooked 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3 beef, raw 0.93 1.07 4.7 14.0 26 220 2.1 4.5 biscuit mix (Bisquick) 0.55 1.82 2.8 8.3 15 130 3.5 7.7 blue corn meal 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 bran, unsifted 0.23 4.29 1.2 3.5 6 55 8.2 18.2 brazil nuts, whole 0.64 1.57 3.2 9.5 18 150 3.0 6.7 bread crumbs, fresh 0.25 3.93 1.3 3.8 7 60 7.6 16.7 bread crumbs, packaged 0.51 1.97 2.5 7.6 14 120 3.8 8.3 buckwheat groats 0.72 1.39 3.6 10.8 20 170 2.7 5.9 butter 0.97 1.03 4.9 14.6 27 230 2.0 4.3

    [continued in next message]

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