• ES Picture of the Day 17 2021

    From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Sun Jan 17 11:00:42 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Archive - Aurora Observed from Space Station

    January 16, 2021

    Iss006-e-47517_540

    Every weekend we present a notable item from our archives. This EPOD
    was originally published January 16, 2004.

    Provided by: NASA Earth Observatory
    Summary authors & editors: Earth Observatory; Jim Foster

    According to Expedition 6 Science Officer Don Pettit, aboard the
    International Space Station (ISS), being in orbit around the Earth
    offers a unique perspective on auroras. He mentioned that when their
    orbit coincided with local midnight at high latitudes, the lights were
    turned down so that it was possible to peer out the windows at the
    breathtaking views of the shimmering northern lights. The above photo
    was taken from the ISS as it orbited over the Southern Hemisphere,
    approximately 400 km above the Earth’s surface, on April 20, 2003.

    Most of the auroral light is emitted by oxygen atoms excited from
    bombardment by charged solar particles. Charged particles consisting of
    atomic fragments released by the Sun stream through space and run into
    Earth’s magnetic field. When a charged particle encounters our magnetic
    field, a force perpendicular to the motion is created, which diverts
    the particle into a spiral path until it collides with atoms in the
    upper atmosphere. The collisions excite the atoms (oxygen and nitrogen)
    into emitting light, in much the same way that electrons pumped inside
    of a glass tube filled with neon gas create a neon light. Green light
    is the color most commonly observed. It's emitted from excited oxygen,
    centered around a wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum of 558
    nanometers. Red light, emitted about wavelengths in the 630 nanometer
    region, is less infrequently observed. Green emissions extend from
    about 100 km altitude to approximately 300 km, whereas the red
    emissions lie on top of the green and extend to perhaps 500 km.


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    Atmospheric Effects Links

    * Atmospheric Optics
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    * Refraction Index
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    * What is a Rainbow?

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Wed Feb 17 11:00:34 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Val-d'Isère Moonbow

    February 17, 2021

    Capture

    Photographer: Denis Huber
    Summary Author: Denis Huber; Jim Foster

    Rainbows are caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of
    light by water drops and droplets, resulting in a strip of
    spectral colors across the sky, taking the form of a circular
    arc. You can also see rainbows near fountains and waterfalls, as in the
    case above at Val-d'Isère, France. This particular bow is from the
    light of the moon the night of August 6, 2020.

    Photo Details: Camera: Canon EOS 90D; Software: Adobe Photoshop
    Lightroom Classic 9.3 (Windows); Exposure Time: 30.000s; Aperture:
    ƒ/2.8; ISO equivalent: 800; Focal Length: 11.0mm
    * Val-d'Isère, France Coordinates: 45.44803, 6.98022

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    Atmospheric Effects Links

    * Atmospheric Optics
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    * The Colors of Twillight and Sunset
    * Refraction Index
    * Image Gallery: Atmospheric Effects
    * What is a Rainbow?

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 9 weeks, 21 hours, 27 minutes
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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Wed Mar 17 11:00:40 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    The Race for the Great Conjunction, 2021

    March 17, 2021

    Capture

    Photographer: Kevin Saragozza
    Summary Author: Kevin Saragozza

    Seen above are Jupiter and Saturn in the race for the Great
    Conjunction of December 21, 2020. Though the gas giant and
    ringed planet are in conjunction approximately every 20 years,
    they’re rarely in such close proximity; the last time they were this
    close was nearly 400-years ago. Picture taken December 14, 2020.

    Photo Details: Canon EOS R, F/8, 1.2 sec, ISO 160 70mm
    * Plemmirio, Italy Coordinates: 37.00449, 15.32951

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    Night Sky Links

    * Space Weather Live
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    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 13 weeks, 20 hours, 27 minutes
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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Mon May 17 11:00:34 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Madison Limestone in the Little Rockies of Montana

    May 17, 2021

    EPODbenson

    Photographer: Rod Benson

    Summary Author: Rod Benson
    These light-colored cliffs are made of nearly vertical layers of
    Madison limestone, formed from sediment deposited during the
    Mississippian Period about 340 million years ago. Thick deposits of
    corals, shells, and other forms of calcium carbonate
    accumulated on the floor of a shallow tropical sea when this part of
    Earth’s crust was much closer to the equator. The hiker in the blue
    shirt provides a sense of scale.
    The sediment was deposited in horizontal layers, but about 60 million
    years ago magma worked its way up toward the surface, causing the
    Madison Limestone to be domed upward. Eventually, the magma
    hardened, becoming igneous rock ( syenite porphyry), which forms the
    core of the mountain range. The doming occurred in an area about 15-20
    miles (24-32 km in diameter. Over time, most of the limestone above the
    igneous intrusion eroded away, leaving only the steeply- tilted edge of
    the limestone dome that forms the cliffs shown in the photo. Many
    other similar outcrops can be found around the perimeter of the
    Little Rockies. Photo taken on March 19, 2021.

    Hays, Montana Coordinates: 47.9892, -108.6943


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    Geology Links

    * Earthquakes
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    * Geomagnetism
    * General Dictionary of Geology
    * Mineral and Locality Database
    * Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness
    * This Dynamic Earth
    * USGS
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    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Thu Jun 17 11:00:26 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Mysterious Sea Bowls in La Palma

    June 17, 2021

    Cazoletas en el mar

    Photographer: Jose F. Arozena

    Summary Authors: Jose F. Arozena & Cadan Cummings

    These circular or ovoid shaped holes of different sizes and depths are
    called sea bowls. Mysterious in nature, their origin has been
    hypothesized to be human made by the ancient inhabitants of the La
    Palma island- the so-called Awaras- since their creation has not
    been explained geologically. Several theories for their purpose range
    from serving a role in regional fishing or livestock farming to
    representing a part of sacred history for native populations. Located
    adjacent to the sea which is historically used to wash sheep and other
    livestock, the sea bowls could have served a role in bathing and
    deworming cattle in summer months. This evidence is supported by their
    names on marine maps stemming from livestock terms- such as “cattle
    tip” shown in the images above. Alternatively, their orientation on
    the horizon points approximately to where the Sun rises and sets during
    the solstices. Whether a part of ancient livestock agriculture,
    marking annual astrological events, or something altogether different,
    these sea bowls in the volcanic basalt rock have endured the test
    of time as their shape remains even after being covered by hightide
    repeatedly for countless years.

    For more about the geology and history of La Palma, see Professor
    Miguel Martin’s videos and podcasts in the Canarian prehistory magazine
    Iruene.
    * Mazo. La Palma island, Canary Islands, Spain Coordinates:
    28.605556, -17.777778

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    Geology Links

    * Earthquakes
    * Geologic Time
    * Geomagnetism
    * General Dictionary of Geology
    * Mineral and Locality Database
    * Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness
    * This Dynamic Earth
    * USGS
    * USGS Ask a Geologist
    * USGS/NPS Geologic Glossary
    * USGS Volcano Hazards Program

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 5 weeks, 6 days, 12 hours, 15 minutes
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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Tue Aug 17 11:00:32 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    The Fraser Fir - The Comeback Kid in the Smoky Mountains

    August 17, 2021

    DSC02830_1

    Photographer: Patti Weeks & Boni Boswell

    Summary Author: Patti Weeks

    The Fraser Fir (Abies fraseri) tree, native to the southern
    Appalachian Mountains in North Carolina and Tennessee, found
    sanctuary in high, cool elevations as the land warmed following our
    last Ice Age. Due to the inadvertent and unfortunate
    introduction of a small, wing-less insect called the balsam woolly
    adelgid ( Adelges piceae) to North America from Europe in the early
    1900s, fir trees in Canada and the northeastern U.S. were gradually
    being killed by the destructive insect. This invasive pest eventually
    spread to the dense southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. The
    infection of the susceptible Fraser Fir was first detected in the late
    1950s, and the trees were nearly decimated by the 1980s, with the vast
    majority of adult trees succumbing to the disease. Land managers have
    found this small noxious insect, with its multi-phase life cycle,
    extremely difficult to control. They began to think they were seeing
    the demise of the Fraser Fir, which has no natural defense against
    foreign invaders. However, after more than three decades of managing
    and monitoring the high Appalachian forests in the Smoky Mountains,
    foresters are seeing a comeback of the Fraser Fir! They are discovering
    that young healthy firs, as seen in the top photo, are more resistant
    to the woolly adelgid than mature trees. IMG_6298

    There are still many scenes in the high Appalachians that reveal the
    pencil-like deceased mature firs, poking up above the dense
    green forest line—as seen in the second photo of the pathway to a
    stunning 360° view from the observation tower atop the 6,643-foot
    (2,025 m) high Clingman’s Dome in the Great Smoky Mountains
    National Park. Nevertheless, the Fraser Fir’s resurgence brings hope,
    not only for foresters, conservationists and visitors to the park, but
    also for the Christmas tree industry farmers, who produce fifty million
    Christmas trees annually in North Carolina. Researchers are also trying
    to produce firs that are genetically resistant to the woolly
    adelgid, so healthy trees can be reintroduced to natural stands.
    Unfortunately, the new threat to the Fraser Fir now is climate
    change, which is adding stress to the already vulnerable species.

    Photo details: Top—SONY DSC-HX400V: 135.23 mm.; f/5.6; 1/250s.; ISO
    125; Bottom— iPhone 7: 3.99mm; f/1.8; 1/1153s; ISO 20.
    * Clingmans Dome, North Carolina Coordinates: 35.5626, -83.4983

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    Plant Links

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    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Sun Oct 17 11:00:36 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Archive - Pamukkale, Turkey

    October 16, 2021

    6a0105371bb32c970b019aff0ca352970d

    Every weekend we present a notable item from our archives.

    This EPOD was originally published September 16, 2013.

    Photographer: Andre Vicente Goncalves
    Summary Author: Andre Vicente Goncalves
    Shown above is the wondrous area of Pamukkale in southwestern
    Turkey, near the city of Denizli. The natural terraces in the
    foreground, composed primarily of calcite and aragonite, were
    formed by water flowing from hot springs having particularly high
    calcium carbonate ( travertine) content. Note the rain-shaft in
    the distance at left, while the Sun is still shining on the right-hand
    side of the photo. Crepuscular rays further enhance the lure of
    this scene. I was indeed fortunate to witness such a beautiful
    spectacle. Pamukkale was declared a World Heritage Site in 1988.
    Photo taken on August 17, 2013.

    Photo details: Camera Model: Canon EOS 5D Mark II; Lens: EF16-35mm
    f/2.8L II USM; Focal Length: 17mm; Focus Distance: Infinite; Aperture:
    f/8.0; Exposure Time: 0.0040 s (1/250); ISO equiv: 500; Software: Adobe
    Photoshop CC (Macintosh).
    * Denizli, Turkey Coordinates: 37.9205, 29.121

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    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Wed Nov 17 11:00:26 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Sunset and Mammatus Clouds Observed in Sicily

    November 17, 2021

    20210906 7R309441 web(1)

    Photographer: Alessia Scarso

    Summary Author: Alessia Scarso; Cadan Cummings

    The beautiful sunset shown above was photographed near the city of
    Modica, Italy on the island of Sicily. Because the Sun is
    almost below the horizon, light from the sunset illuminated the
    underside of the cloud base and accentuated several regions of
    mammatus clouds. Mesmerizing to see in person or in photos,
    mammatus clouds are often found beneath anvil clouds and are
    primarily composed of ice crystals and water vapor. These unique cloud
    structures are likely caused by a combination of wind shears and
    sharp temperature gradients leading to these pouches of saturated
    air sinking underneath the cloud base. Photo taken on September 6,
    2021.
    * Modica, Sicily, Italy Coordinates: 36.8588, 14.7608

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    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Fri Dec 17 11:00:34 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Water Drops on Leaves

    December 17, 2021

    Menashe_Picture1_guttation

    Menashe_Picture2_dew

    Photographer: Menashe Davidson

    Summary Authors: Menashe Davidson; Jim Foster

    "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything
    better." (Albert Einstein)

    On a wonderful spring day this past May in Rishon LeZion Israel, I sat
    in my home garden surrounded by beautiful blooms all around me.
    Suddenly I saw shiny strips on the top of a flowering hollyhock
    that were illuminated by the Sun as it lowered in the western sky. This
    glow was due to sunlight scattered by drops of water on the tips of the
    bristly surface of the colored flowers and buds. Since the soil in the
    plant container was quite humid, the plant was simply removing excess
    moisture from its pores as a result of root pressure. This is the
    process of guttation. Because the temperature during the late
    afternoon dropped, the humidity was higher, and the hollyhock plant had
    no recourse but to ooze out excess moisture (top photo, taken on May 3,
    2021). The camera is facing the Sun. Note that the tiny drops are
    easiest to detect on the tips of the hairs at lower left.

    A few days later and again enjoying my garden but this time during the
    early morning, my attention was attracted to tiny glowing spots over
    the wrinkle petals of an amaryllis plant. The brightness of these
    spots is a function of the sun angle in relation to the surface of the
    leaves (bottom photo, taken on May 8, 2021). The camera was facing away
    from the Sun. In this case, the drops are dew drops, which forms
    all over a leaf’s surface, and not just at the tips, from condensation
    of atmospheric moisture. The more I understand nature, the more I feel
    at home in my heart.
    * Rishon LeZion Israel Coordinates: 31.9730, 34.7925

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    Plant Links

    * Discover Life
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    * USDA Plants Database
    * University of Texas Native Plant Database
    * Plants in Motion
    * What Tree is It?

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

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