• ES Picture of the Day 14 2021

    From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Thu Jan 14 11:00:42 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    The Golden Hour at Rocky Mountain National Park

    January 14, 2021

    The Golden Hour at Rocky Mountain National Park

    Photographer: Pete Claussen
    Summary Author: Pete Claussen
    One morning several weeks back, I got up early specifically to
    photograph the Golden Hour, in Colorado’s Rocky Mountain
    National Park. This is the period during sunrise when the color of the
    sky transitions from red and orange to yellow, or, as its name
    suggests, to golden tones. Within this brief window, sunlight is
    diffuse, and shadows are soft. Because there’s relatively little
    contrast, the lighting is nearly ideal for landscape photography. Photo
    taken on November 18, 2020.
    Photo Details: Camera: NIKON Z 7; Software: Adobe Photoshop Lightroom
    Classic 10.0 (Windows); Exposure Time: 0.033s (1/30); Aperture: ƒ/8.0;
    ISO equivalent: 64; Focal Length (35mm): 55; Lens: NIKKOR Z 24-200mm
    f/4-6.3 VR
    * Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado Coordinates: 40.3428,
    -105.6836

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    Atmospheric Effects Links

    * Atmospheric Optics
    * Color and Light in Nature
    * The Colors of Twillight and Sunset
    * Refraction Index
    * Image Gallery: Atmospheric Effects
    * What is a Rainbow?

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 4 weeks, 1 day, 21 hours, 27 minutes
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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Sun Feb 14 11:00:42 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Archive - Frozen Breath

    February 13, 2021

    Isros06033

    Every weekend we present a notable item from our archives. This EPOD
    was originally published February 12, 2004.

    Provided and copyright by: Thomas Holmgren
    Summary authors & editors: Jim Foster; Thomas Holmgren

    If you breathe on a cold window, you can sometimes see the moisture
    freeze before your eyes, often forming shapes similar to snowflakes.
    These breath crystals are frozen directly from the air, forming the
    delicate leaves shown above, some of which are as long as 5 cm (2 in).
    To see breath crystals like these, the air temperature needs to be
    below about 14 F (-10 C).


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    Cryosphere Links

    * Guide to Frost
    * What is the Cryosphere?
    * Bentley Snow Crystals
    * Glaciers of the World
    * Ice, Snow, and Glaciers: The Water Cycle
    * The National Snow and Ice Data Center Google Earth Images
    * Snow and Ice Crystals

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Wed Apr 14 11:00:52 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Ocean Eddies and the Titanic Disaster

    April 14, 2021

    MILA eddy2

    Mila_MODIS_e11 (002)

    Photographer: Mila Zinkova
    Summary Author: Mila Zinkova

    Eddies, or circular currents, play an important role in the
    ocean's circulation. They can be meters in diameter, as shown above on
    the top photo, or hundreds of kilometers across (bottom photo), a
    satellite image that shows plankton blooming in the north Atlantic
    Ocean, around the area where the Titanic sunk. Note that the plankton
    outlines currents as well as tongues of water having different
    temperatures.

    Today is the 109^th anniversary of the Titanic’s sinking. Eddies were a
    significant element in the Titanic's disaster. Not only were
    eddies responsible for transporting the icebergs and sea ice to the
    wreck site, but they could have played a decisive role in the inaction
    of the California, a nearby steamer. Californian's second officer,
    Herbert Stone, testified that the steamer he was watching was changing
    her bearing and eventually steamed away. During the Titanic inquiry,
    Stone stated: "A steamer that is in distress does not steam away from
    you, my Lord."

    On the other hand, the fourth officer of the Titanic, Joseph Boxhall,
    who was watching the Californian from the sinking Titanic, testified
    that at first the Californian was approaching and later leaving the
    stricken liner. For many years, authors writing about the Titanic and
    Titanic disaster investigators have struggled to figure out how it was
    possible for two stopped steamers to move towards and/or away from each
    other. In 2018 I published an article, in which I suggested that
    the Californian could have drifted in an eddy. In fact, both Titanic
    and Californian could have drifted in different sets of currents and/or
    different eddies. Eddies are very common in the area where the Titanic
    went down, and it's possible they were present on that fateful night.
    Here's a video to see the eddies in motion.

    Another confirmation of an unusual drift comes from the position of the
    Carpathia (the rescue ship). When the Californian's officers first saw
    the Titanic she was located south-southeast of the Californian.
    However, in the morning the Carpathia was located south of the
    Californian. If the Californian, the Titanic and the Titanic's
    lifeboats were drifting in the same set of currents, the Carpathia
    should have been located south-southeast of Californian, just as the
    Titanic was a few hours before.

    Top photo taken on September 8, 2018. Bottom photo is a MODIS satellite
    image taken on March 9, 2002.


    * Titanic Disaster Coordinates: 41.72555, -49.94694

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    Applied Sciences Links

    * BBC: World Water Crisis
    * Indoor Air Quality
    * Mathematics in Nature
    * A Mathematical Nature Walk
    * NASA: Applied Earth Sciences
    * Remote Sensing Tutorial

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Fri May 14 11:00:30 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Granite in Pico das Cabras Park, Brazil

    May 14, 2021


    Foto 1 (1)

    Photographer: Monikeli Wippel
    Summary Author: Monikeli Wippel

    The elephant-shaped chunk of granite shown above is found in
    Pico das Cabras Park, Campinas/São Paulo, Brazil. Belonging to the
    Morungaba Granitic Suite, outcrops such as this are often used by
    visitors here as photographic backdrops. In addition to dramatic rock
    formations, scenic trails and the Open Museum of Astronomy are also
    located within Pico das Cabras Park. Photo taken on September 7, 2020.

    Campinas/São Paulo, Brazil Coordinates: -22.9329, -47.0738


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    Geology Links

    * Earthquakes
    * Geologic Time
    * Geomagnetism
    * General Dictionary of Geology
    * Mineral and Locality Database
    * Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness
    * This Dynamic Earth
    * USGS
    * USGS Ask a Geologist
    * USGS/NPS Geologic Glossary
    * USGS Volcano Hazards Program

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 1 week, 12 hours, 15 minutes
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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Mon Jun 14 11:00:38 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Fall-streak and Circumzenithal Arc

    June 14, 2021

    Arco-Circumzenitale

    Photographer: Marco Meniero

    Summary Author: Marco Meniero

    Featured above is a colorful circumzenithal arc and a
    fall-streak observed from Civitavecchia (Rome), Italy, below the
    approach path of the Fiumicino Airport. Fall-streak holes occur in
    cloud decks ( altostratus clouds, for example) where the droplets of
    liquid water that compose them are in a supercooled state; that is
    they remain in liquid even if the air temperature is well below the
    freezing point of water (0 ° C). However, an aircraft passing through
    the cloud layer can cause the supercooled droplets to suddenly freeze,
    resulting in a cascade of ice crystals. When these crystals become
    sufficiently heavy, they’ll detach from the cloud and fall, leaving a
    void in the cloud layer – a hole in the sky. In this case, the
    falling crystals were oriented so that sunlight entered their uppermost
    horizontal faces and exited through one of their vertical side faces,
    forming this charming circumzenithal arc. Note also the cloud
    iridescence near the bottom of the photo.

    Both climbing and descending aircraft will trigger fall-streaks in
    shallow cloud decks, which explains why such voids are often seen in
    the vicinity of busy airport runways. Photo taken on April 12, 2021.
    * Fiumicino Airport, Italy Coordinates: 41.7999,12.2462

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    Atmospheric Effects Links

    * Atmospheric Optics
    * Color and Light in Nature
    * The Colors of Twillight and Sunset
    * Refraction Index
    * Image Gallery: Atmospheric Effects
    * What is a Rainbow?

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 5 weeks, 3 days, 12 hours, 15 minutes
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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Wed Jul 14 11:00:30 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Omega Sunset Over Key West, Florida

    July 14, 2021

    Birth of the Omega

    Photographer: Robert Pickard

    Summary Author: Robert Pickard & Cadan Cummings

    The composite photo of Sun images above details the different stages of
    a sunset as observed from Key West, Florida. Due to the atmospheric
    refraction of sunlight when the Sun is low in the sky, the solar disk
    appears as a beautiful yellow-orange gradient and in the shape of the
    Greek letter omega (Ω) or Etruscan Vase. The phenomenon results
    from an inferior mirage caused by a layer of dense, cool air on
    top of less dense, warmer air. This optical event occurs when the
    ocean temperature is warmer than the air temperature and heats a
    layer of air immediately above the water surface. As sunlight
    approaches the water surface, the light is refracted upwards and
    makes the mirage appear below an object’s true position. This
    culminates in the fifth and sixth composite images when the Sun and its
    mirage optically join into the familiar omega shape. A related solar
    phenomenon is occasionally noticeable at sunset when a green flash
    is visible above the upper rim of the solar disk. This rare event was
    also visible during my three day trip as I saw multiple "flashes"
    occurring at the top of the setting Sun.

    Make sure to always view the Sun safely using proper filters or
    techniques. Photos were taken on May 5, 2021 near the famed Mallory
    Square in Key West, where the island population and tourists have a
    daily sunset celebration.

    Photo data: Camera- Nikon D3200 (with T-ring adapter), Exposure-
    1/500s, ISO-100, Telescope- Orion ShortTube 80 refractor with Celestron
    Omni CG4 mount (untracked)
    * Key West, Florida Coordinates: 24.551935, -81.806863

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    Sun Links

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    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 9 weeks, 5 days, 12 hours, 15 minutes
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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Sat Aug 14 11:00:28 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Archive - Bonneville Salt Flats Panorama

    August 14, 2021

    6a0105371bb32c970b015393c1cce4970b Every weekend we present a
    notable item from our archives. This EPOD was originally published
    December 7, 2011.

    Photographer: Bret Webster
    Summary Authors: Bret Webster; Jim Foster
    The panorama above shows a view of the Bonneville Salt Flats and
    surrounding mountain ranges in northwestern Utah. Steady winds have
    ruffled Bonneville’s surface forming the conspicuous windrow. A
    combination of wind and water created these salt flats. When rain
    falls here, during the cold season, it accumulates in a very thin layer
    since the surface is so level it has nowhere to drain. As the weather
    warms, the shallow lake water slowly evaporates, adding a new layer
    of salt, chiefly potassium, magnesium or sodium chloride.
    Note that it's likely that the new salt is really a combination of old,
    recrystallized salt, as well as some new additional salts that
    drain into the lake from the surrounding hills. Panorama taken on July
    10, 2010.

    Photo Details: Camera: Canon EOS 5D Mark II; Focal Length: 15.0mm;
    Aperture: f/16.0; Exposure Time: 0.0040 s (1/250); ISO equiv: 40;
    Software: DXO Optics Pro v6.
    * Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah Coordinates: 40.79972, -113.8

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    Geology Links

    * Earthquakes
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    * General Dictionary of Geology
    * Mineral and Locality Database
    * Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness
    * This Dynamic Earth
    * USGS
    * USGS Ask a Geologist
    * USGS/NPS Geologic Glossary
    * USGS Volcano Hazards Program

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 14 weeks, 1 day, 12 hours, 15 minutes
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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Tue Sep 14 11:00:34 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Flower Supermoon Over Rome

    September 14, 2021

    CS1A0017s

    Photographer: Gianluca Masi

    Summary Author: Gianluca Masi; Cadan Cummings

    The spectacular photo above shows the Flower Supermoon rising
    in Rome, Italy soon after sunset. These lovely lighting conditions are
    due to the typical blue hour after sunset when the remaining
    indirect sunlight takes on a predominantly blue hue. Primarily,
    this bluish, cooler light is caused by light scattering and
    Chappuis absorption of visible light by ozone in Earth’s
    atmosphere.

    In contrast to the blue hour lighting, the full Moon has a more
    reddish and warmer hue resulting from being very low to the horizon and
    its light having to cross a thick layer of atmosphere. Nicknamed the
    “Flower” Moon, the May full Moon is named after the many flowers that
    bloom during the month. Adding significance to this full Moon, it was
    the second of two consecutive supermoons of the year when the Moon
    is at its closest point in its elliptical orbit to Earth (approximately
    226,000 miles or 363,300 km away). In the foreground, you can also see
    the Mausoleum of Hadrian (aka Castel Sant’Angelo), the Altar
    of the Fatherland, the Colosseum, the Pantheon’s dome, and
    countless other residences and buildings of Rome’s skyline. Photo taken
    on May 26, 2021.
    * Rome, Italy Coordinates: 41.9028, 12.4964

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    Night Sky Links

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    * Lunar and Planetary Institute
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    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 1 week, 4 days, 21 hours, 55 minutes
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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Thu Oct 14 11:00:26 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Storm, Stars and Mt Etna

    October 14, 2021

    Giovanni_tEMPORALE STACK 4 2048 PIX

    Photographer: Giovanni Tumino

    Summary Author: Giovanni Tumino; Jim Foster

    The photo above shows a summer thunderstorm illuminating a portion
    of the flank of Mt. Etna, in Sicily, Italy, as city lights light up
    the night sky in the vicinity of Etna’s base. This stratovolcano
    (11,014 ft or 3,357 m), one of the most active on the planet, isn’t
    contributing to the glow of the sky here as it’s been relatively
    quiet since this past February. Note that stars are shining
    brightly above the top of the storm. Photo taken on July 18, 2021, from
    Ragusa, Italy.

    Photo details: Canon EOS RA; SIGMA 85 mm lens; f/1.4; f/4; four 15
    seconds exposures; ISO1600; combined in Photoshop
    * Ragusa (Sicily), Italy Coordinates: 36.9269, 14.7255

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    Geography Links

    * Atlapedia Online
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    * Types of Land
    * World Mapper

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 5 weeks, 6 days, 21 hours, 55 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Tue Dec 14 11:00:32 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Belt Meteor Crater - Actually A Sinkhole

    December 14, 2021

    EPODcrater

    Photographer: Rod Benson

    Summary Author: Rod Benson

    This photo features the Belt Meteor Crater, which is located on
    private land in central Montana. Contrary to its name, this landform
    was NOT made by a meteorite slamming into the prairie. Instead,
    this landform is a sinkhole that was caused by the dissolution
    of limestone beneath the surface. The rim of the crater is made of
    sandstone, but a thick (up to 1,700 feet / 520 m) formation called
    the Madison limestone underlies the area. As water soaks down
    through soils above, it becomes slightly acidic. While this water
    works its way down through cracks, it dissolves away the limestone and
    forms caves. The sinkhole is 100 feet (30 m) across and 40 feet (12
    m) deep, so a fairly large cave must have formed in the limestone here
    not far beneath the surface. Eventually the layers of sandstone above
    the cave collapsed onto the cavern floor to form the sinkhole.

    The Belt Meteor Crater once served as a buffalo jump, or "pishkun",
    for Native Americans as evidenced by bison bones and arrowheads on
    the floor of the hole. "Pishkun" is a word from the Blackfeet
    meaning "deep blood kettle." Scientists visited the sinkhole to collect
    bison bones that can be carbon-dated to determine when Native
    Americans used it. They also found an arrowhead(s) made of
    obsidian. Experts can determine where the obsidian came from by
    comparing its mineral composition with obsidian outcrops in the region.
    This can also help provide insights about Native American trade routes.
    * Belt, Montana Coordinates: 47.3872, -110.9277

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    Geology Links

    * Earthquakes
    * Geologic Time
    * Geomagnetism
    * General Dictionary of Geology
    * Mineral and Locality Database
    * Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness
    * This Dynamic Earth
    * USGS
    * USGS Ask a Geologist
    * USGS/NPS Geologic Glossary
    * USGS Volcano Hazards Program

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 1 week, 2 days, 20 hours, 43 minutes
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