• ES Picture of the Day 12 2021

    From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Tue Jan 12 11:00:56 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Capo Murro di Porco Lighthouse and Maddalena Peninsula

    January 12, 2021

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    Photographer: Kevin Saragozza
    Summary Author: Kevin Saragozza
    Shown above at center is the picturesque Capo Murro di Porco
    Lighthouse on the Maddalena Peninsula of Sicily, Italy. The steep
    cliffs of this peninsula, which formed from a tectonic fault
    feature known as a horst, drop abruptly (175 ft or 54 m) to the
    sea. Exposed rocks are generally calcareous (limestone).

    Overhead, mid-level altocumulus clouds spread across the western
    sky. As shown here, they’re illuminated from below by the grazing light
    of the setting Sun. Photo taken on November 8, 2020.
    Photo Details: Sony a7iii+ camera; Sony 16 35; f4; overview consisting
    of 5 shots combined with raw camera (F10 / 10-second exposure; ISO 125)
    * Plemmirio, Italy Coordinates: 37.003119, 15.335129

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    Geography Links

    * Atlapedia Online
    * CountryReports
    * GPS Visualizer
    * Holt Rinehart Winston World Atlas
    * Mapping Our World
    * Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection
    * Types of Land
    * World Mapper

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Fri Feb 12 11:00:44 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Inferior Mirage Observed from Plemmirio, Syracuse, Italy

    February 12, 2021

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    Photographer: Kevin Saragozza
    Summary Author: Kevin Saragozza

    Mirages are quite common and very fascinating phenomena. Their
    mechanism of formation is a consequence of the laws of geometric
    optics, especially refraction. We can distinguish mirages into two
    main classes; superior (upper) mirages and inferior (lower)
    mirages. An example of an inferior mirage, the type most often seen, is
    what looks to be wet asphalt on the road ahead of us on a hot summer’s
    day. What we’re seeing, in fact, is nothing more than the refracted
    image of the sky. On the photo above, taken near Plemmirio, Syracuse,
    Italy, we’re able to see the distant town of Portopalo di Capo Passero
    floating on the horizon, even though it’s some 25 miles (40 km) away.
    Of course, in the absence of this inferior mirage, we wouldn’t be able
    to see this far.

    Mirages are formed in the presence of rather intense air
    temperature gradients -- an abrupt temperature variation between nearby
    air layers. When the temperature decreases very rapidly as the height
    above the ground increases, the density of the air changes just as
    rapidly. Because of this, a light ray no longer propagates in a
    straight line but is bent upwards and forms a lower mirage. As a
    result, an object appears lower than it is in reality, hence the name
    inferior mirage. Photo taken on December 13, 2020 (15:49 local time).

    Photo Details: Canon Eos R camera; + 70-200 2.8 lens; f9; 1/500 sec.
    exposure; ISO100
    * Plemmirio, Italy Coordinates: 37.0054, 15.3175

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    Atmospheric Effects Links

    * Atmospheric Optics
    * Color and Light in Nature
    * The Colors of Twillight and Sunset
    * Refraction Index
    * Image Gallery: Atmospheric Effects
    * What is a Rainbow?

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 8 weeks, 2 days, 21 hours, 27 minutes
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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Fri Mar 12 11:00:40 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Helical Clouds

    March 12, 2021

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    Photographer: Nelson Reticence
    Summary Authors: Nelson Reticence; Jim Foster
    These eye-catching clouds were observed over Holyoke,
    Massachusetts, at sunset on November 24, 2020. Looking like helical DNA
    strands or breaking waves, they form where the layer of air that
    contains the clouds moves at a different velocity and has a
    different density than the air in the layer just above the clouds. This
    results in air flows that tend to have a distinct serpentine
    motion.
    * Holyoke, Massachusetts Coordinates: 42.2043, -72.6162

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    Cloud Links

    * Atmospheric Optics
    * The Cloud Appreciation Society
    * Cloud Atlas
    * Color and Light in Nature

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 12 weeks, 2 days, 21 hours, 27 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Mon Apr 12 11:00:50 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Backyard Avalanche

    April 12, 2021

    Pre-Avalanche (1)

    Photographer: George Seielstad
    Summary Authors: George Seielstad; Jim Foster
    Seldom does an avalanche occur on your outside deck, but conditions
    in February of 2021 created one at my home in western Montana. A snowy
    start to the month was followed by continuously cold weather through
    mid-February when only on one day did the thermometer reach freezing
    (32 F or 0 C).

    Shown above is a glass-topped table with rounded edges having a slight
    tilt. After snow piled up on the table, a meltwater lens allowed the
    load to gradually slide slowly off the downhill edge. Notice how
    the curved edge is rounded on the underside of the table. This
    demonstrates snow's substantial tensile strength. Photos taken on
    February 19, 2021.
    * Missoula, Montana Coordinates: 46.872, -113.9940

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    Cryosphere Links

    * Guide to Frost
    * What is the Cryosphere?
    * Bentley Snow Crystals
    * Glaciers of the World
    * Ice, Snow, and Glaciers: The Water Cycle
    * The National Snow and Ice Data Center Google Earth Images
    * Snow and Ice Crystals

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 2 weeks, 3 days, 22 hours, 10 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Wed May 12 11:00:28 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Omega Sun over South Padre Island, Texas

    May 12, 2021

    Omega Sunset

    Photographer: César Cantú
    Summary Authors: César Cantú; Jim Foster
    The photo above was captured at sunset over the Gulf of Mexico, as
    viewed from South Padre Island, Texas. Because of strong
    atmospheric refraction the solar disk takes the shape of the Greek
    letter omega.

    At sunset or sunrise, sunlight directed towards us from the lower
    portion of the Sun passes through a somewhat denser atmosphere than
    rays coming from the Sun’s upper limb. Consequently, the bottom of the
    solar disk is refracted more, and thus distorted more, than the top
    of the solar disk. The omega shape (also known as Etruscan vase)
    actually results from an inferior mirage. When the Sun drops beneath
    the horizon, its inferior mirage seems to connect with the true
    Sun.

    A wind turbine for generating electric power is in the foreground.
    Photo taken on March 6, 2021.

    South Padre Island, Texas Coordinates: 26.1118, -97.1681


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    Atmospheric Effects Links

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    * Image Gallery: Atmospheric Effects
    * What is a Rainbow?

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 5 days, 12 hours, 15 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Sat Jun 12 11:00:34 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Archive - Red Rose and Morning Dew

    June 12, 2021

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    Happy Red Rose Day! Each weekend we present a notable item from our
    archives. This EPOD was originally published May 12, 2013.

    Photographer: Alejandro Jaramillo
    Summary Authors: Alejandro Jaramillo; Jim Foster
    The photo above showing a red rose draped in dewdrops was taken
    in Medellin, Colombia. When air at a constant atmospheric
    pressure is cooled below its dew point, typically in the early
    morning hours, moisture condenses not only on blades of grass and
    windshields but on all nearly all exposed surfaces. In fact, many
    plants, and even some animals, rely on dew and fog as a valuable
    source of water.
    The dipole charge on every water molecule attracts them to each
    other -- positive to negative and negative to positive. Water drops are
    more or less spherical because of this electrostatic attraction and
    cohesion. Photo taken on May 3, 2012.
    Photo details: SONY NEX-5N camera; 54 mm focal length; f/5 aperture;
    1/100 sec. exposure; ISO 200.
    * Medellin, Colombia Coordinates: 6.2457, -75.5822

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    Atmospheric Effects Links

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    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 5 weeks, 1 day, 12 hours, 15 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Mon Jul 12 11:00:28 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Peering Into the Geology of Central Aragón

    July 12, 2021

    Aliaga

    Photographer: Martin Ripsam

    Summary Author: Martin Ripsam & Cadan Cummings

    Taken from the viewpoint of the Geological Park of Aliaga (Aragon,
    Spain), this picture shows the tectonic history of Central Aragon.
    Located in eastern Spain, the landscape around Aliaga contains rocks
    from all the geologic ages for the last 200 Million years, mostly
    Mesozoic and Cretaceous limestones. One of the most well-known
    landforms of this region is the Camarillas Formation situated just
    outside the town of Aliaga. Geologically, this area is majority
    comprised of sandstone, limestone, mudstone, and conglomerates
    deposited in lacustrine and fluvial ecosystems hundreds of
    millions of years ago when the land that is now the Iberian
    Peninsula was separated from the rest of Europe by seas.
    * Aliaga, Spain Coordinates: 40.66715, -0.71776

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    Geology Links

    * Earthquakes
    * Geologic Time
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    * General Dictionary of Geology
    * Mineral and Locality Database
    * Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness
    * This Dynamic Earth
    * USGS
    * USGS Ask a Geologist
    * USGS/NPS Geologic Glossary
    * USGS Volcano Hazards Program

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 9 weeks, 3 days, 12 hours, 15 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Thu Aug 12 11:00:28 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Willow Falls Near Hudson, Wisconsin

    August 12, 2021

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    Photographer: Dale Hugo

    Summary Author: Dale Hugo

    This photo is of the fantastic Willow Falls in the Willow River
    State Park located near Hudson, Wisconsin. The waterfall is
    approximately 100 ft wide (30.5 m) and consist of multiple smaller
    tiers, with the largest being around 15 ft (4.5 m) tall. Part of the
    wider 62-mile long Wilow River, the riverway serves as a tributary
    to the St. Croix River that largely defines the Wisconsin-Minnesota
    border. As you see in the picture, the falls are stepped in between
    dolomitic limestone cliffs. Geological studies have examined the
    surrounding limestone formations and concluded the oldest rock samples
    date back to the Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era.

    Although the falls consist of several tiered drop offs, the river is
    very accessible, and many people enjoy walking in the river as well as
    on the bridge and surrounding trails. We happened to arrive around noon
    when the sunlight was streaming into the canyon and illuminating the
    area beautifully. It also helped to visit near the summer solstice
    because the high Sun angle gave the water a sparkling appearance.
    * Hudson, Wisconsin Coordinates: 45.019644, -92.675808

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    Geology Links

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    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 13 weeks, 6 days, 12 hours, 15 minutes
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  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Tue Oct 12 11:00:26 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    From North America to the Holy Land

    October 12, 2021


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    Menashe_invasive_Picture2

    Photographer: Menashe Davidson

    Summary Author: Menashe Davidson

    Heterotheca subaxillaris (camphor weed), a North American plant, is
    an important invasive species in the Middle East. This plant was
    introduced in Israel in 1975 to stabilize the coastal sand dunes in
    Israel. It quickly occupied areas that hadn’t yet been exploited by
    native species. A rapid evolutionary change occurred within the
    introduced populations, favoring root resources allocation, that
    allowed this species to establish and expand its range, thus
    successfully invading the ecosystems of coastal areas and eventually
    the soils of cultivated lands.

    The above photos were taken in my citrus plantation, in Tira,
    Israel, on May 2021. They demonstrate the evolutionary changes that
    enable this species to access any moisture in the ground, gain
    nutrients from the soil and flower under the hot, summer sunlight.

    Picture 1- Citrus plantation plot. Notice that it’s free of weeds

    Picture 2 – Adjacent plot. Here, the citrus trees were uprooted one
    year ago. This plot is now infested with Heterotheca.

    Picture 3 – The camphor weed reproduces only by seeds. Hairs on the
    small seeds assist wind dispersal.

    Picture 4 – Seedlings of Heterotheca germinate in the wet soil of
    drip irrigation, along the margins of the citrus plot. A basal
    rosette of leaves grows from which a tall shoot emerges carrying a
    number of flowers.

    Bottom photo: Invasive plant in 1-year old citrus plantation.
    * Tira, Israel Coordinates: 32.2355, 34.9505

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    Plant Links

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    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 5 weeks, 4 days, 21 hours, 55 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Fri Nov 12 11:00:24 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Les Demoiselles Coiffées

    November 12, 2021

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    Photographer: Elena Pinna

    Summary Author: Elena Pinna

    The impressive Les Demoiselles Coiffées rock formation is one of
    the most remarkable geological formations in the Hautes-Alpes
    region of France. On the road between Pontis and Le Sauze-du-Lac stands
    a row of "hooded ladies", comprised of several meters high rock columns
    topped by an imposing stone hat.

    The damsels are of glacial origin and consist of rocks from an ancient
    moraine, whose brittle rocks have eroded to form these fragile
    pillars. Fortunately for these columns, harder cap stone rocks at the
    top have withstood the onslaught of time and slowed the loss of the
    comparably softer rock below.

    Photo data: Canon EOS 6D, 35mm, f/8, 1/320 second exposure, ISO-125.
    * Hautes-Alpes, Le Sauze du Lac (France) Coordinates: 44.494, 6.342

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    * This Dynamic Earth
    * USGS
    * USGS Ask a Geologist
    * USGS/NPS Geologic Glossary
    * USGS Volcano Hazards Program

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 16 hours, 24 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Sun Dec 12 11:00:32 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Archive - Ubehebe Crater

    December 11, 2021

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    6a0105371bb32c970b01bb09128d39970d
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    Every weekend we present a notable item from our archives.

    This EPOD was originally published July 4, 2016.

    Photographer: Dave Lynch
    Summary Author: Dave Lynch July 2016 Viewer's Choice

    Ubehebe Crater, shown at top, lies at the north end of the
    Cottonwood Mountains in Death Valley National Park, California.
    Only about a half mile across (0.8 km) and a few hundred feet deep,
    it's nonetheless one of the most beautiful and accessible volcanoes in
    the world. It was formed by a phreatomagmatic eruption, in which
    upward moving magma encountered subsurface water. The water flashed
    into steam and the resulting explosion fractured existing overlying
    rock and expelled massive amounts of sediment and bits of lava
    called lapilli. While there are countless volcanic lapilli in the
    area, no surface magma flow occurred. Another smaller volcanic crater,
    Little Ubehebe (at middle), is found nearby. Satellite imagery (bottom)
    show a dark blanket of ejecta covering the area. The Ubehebe
    volcanics are relatively young, 800 – 7000 years old, though the exact
    age remains uncertain. Photos taken on February 8, 2016.
    * Ubehebe Crater, California Coordinates: 37.010148 -117.450657

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    Geology Links

    * Earthquakes
    * Geologic Time
    * Geomagnetism
    * General Dictionary of Geology
    * Mineral and Locality Database
    * Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness
    * This Dynamic Earth
    * USGS
    * USGS Ask a Geologist
    * USGS/NPS Geologic Glossary
    * USGS Volcano Hazards Program

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 1 week, 20 hours, 43 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)