• ES Picture of the Day 05 2021

    From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Tue Jan 5 11:00:46 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Surface Hoar Formation

    January 05, 2021

    Surface Hoar Formation

    Photographer: Glenn McCreery
    Summary Author: Glenn McCreery

    Frost forms when water vapor condenses directly into ice.
    Large frost crystals (larger than about one-quarter inch or 0.6 cm
    across) that form are often called hoarfrost. The most common form
    of hoarfrost is surface hoar, which can occur, for example, on the
    top of a snowbank that’s warmed during the day and cooled at night
    under a clear, calm sky. Meltwater that evaporates from within the
    snow is later recrystallized onto the colder surface. On sunny days,
    surface hoar is particularly noticeable when it glitters in reflected
    sunlight.
    This photo was captured one morning several weeks ago while cross
    country skiing above Pine Creek Pass, Teton County, Idaho, at an
    elevation of approximately 7,000 ft (2,133 m). The previous day’s high
    temperature was approximately 34 degrees F (1 degree C), but overnight
    temperatures dropped to about 4 degrees F (-15.5 degrees C), nearly
    ideal for hoarfrost formation.
    Note that in mountainous areas, if surface hoar is covered by new snow,
    it can form a very weak layer that’s prone to sliding, resulting in
    avalanche warnings being posted. Photo taken on November 29, 2020.
    Photo Details: Olympus TG4 camera, 30mm (35mm equivalent); f:9.0; ISO
    100; 1/320 second exposure for top photo and 1/200 second exposure for
    bottom photo (Macro mode for bottom photo).
    * Pine Creek Pass, Idaho Coordinates: 43.5716, -111.2152

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    Cryosphere Links

    * Guide to Frost
    * What is the Cryosphere?
    * Bentley Snow Crystals
    * Glaciers of the World
    * Ice, Snow, and Glaciers: The Water Cycle
    * The National Snow and Ice Data Center Google Earth Images
    * Snow and Ice Crystals

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 2 weeks, 6 days, 21 hours, 27 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Fri Feb 5 11:00:44 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Fascinating Ice Patterns

    February 05, 2021

    IM2_17297_pe_mid

    Photographer: Wayne Robinson
    Summary Authors: Wayne Robinson; Jim Foster

    On a winter’s, morning walk along the Washington, Baltimore and
    Annapolis spur trail, I saw these fascinating patterns in the ice
    at the edge of a nearby pond. The low temperature overnight had dropped
    to about 27 F (-3 C), and the icy surface looked so unworldly that it
    might be mistaken for the surface of one of Jupiter’s moons.
    Explaining just how such patterns occur is always challenging. It
    seems, though, that in shallow water when air temperatures fall just
    below the freezing point, ice crystals form thin sheets that grow
    at similar rates but often at different angles. Slight differences in
    stress on the ice, from above and below the surface, can lead to an odd
    quilt-work of patterns that may please the eye but also baffles the
    mind. Note that the entire image width here covers approximately 2 feet
    (0.6 m). Photo taken on December 30, 2020.
    Photo Details: Canon 80D DSLR camera; Canon f/5.6 70-300 mm lens; f/11;
    244 mm fl; 1/100 sec. exposure; ISO 400
    * Bowie, Maryland Coordinates: 39.0068, -76.7791

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    Cryosphere Links

    * Guide to Frost
    * What is the Cryosphere?
    * Bentley Snow Crystals
    * Glaciers of the World
    * Ice, Snow, and Glaciers: The Water Cycle
    * The National Snow and Ice Data Center Google Earth Images
    * Snow and Ice Crystals

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 7 weeks, 2 days, 21 hours, 27 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Fri Mar 5 11:00:44 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Setting Crescent Moon over California

    March 05, 2021

    Stephe b crescent moon

    Photographer: Stephanie Becker
    Summary Author: Stephanie Becker

    Seen above is the setting waxing crescent Moon as observed over San
    Francisco Bay, California. The passing clouds were beautifully
    illuminated as the Moon disappeared beyond the hillside. Additionally,
    on this midwinter’s eve, earthshine was particularly noticeable.
    Photo taken January 15, 2021.

    Photo Details: Canon EOS 70D, 0.3s, f6.3, ISO12800
    * San Francisco Bay, California Coordinates: 37.86246, -122.38697

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    Night Sky Links

    * Space Weather Live
    * Space Weather Live Forum
    * About the Moon
    * American Meteor Society
    * Arbeitskreises Meteore e.V.
    * Global City Lights
    * Heavens Above Home Page
    * The International Meteor Organization
    * Lunar and Planetary Institute
    * MoonConnection
    * NASA Eclipse Web Page
    * Understanding The Moon Phases

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 11 weeks, 2 days, 21 hours, 27 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Mon Apr 5 11:00:56 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Einstein's Eclipse, Colorized

    April 05, 2021

    1919_05_29_TSE_Eddington_Soft_SCAN_light_det_FINAL_1500px
    Image Creator: ESO/Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl/F. W. Dyson,
    A. S. Eddington, & C. Davidson, P. Horálek/Institute of Physics in
    Opava, M. Druckmüller
    Summary Author: Petr Horálek

    The total solar eclipse shown above was observed on May 29,
    1919, from Sobral, Brazil. Using a digital scan of this eclipse from
    one copy of a photographic plate, part of the Heidelberg Digitized
    Astronomical Plates (HDAP) project funded by the Klaus Tschira
    Foundation, it was possible to reconstruct the solar corona and
    also structures of the huge prominence of this scientifically
    important eclipse that helped confirm Einstein’s General
    relativity. In order to so, however, we needed to separate real details
    from scratches and dust on the scan and focus on sub-threshold
    information hidden in a high dynamic range of the original photograph.
    Since the eclipse was photographed on a classical photographic
    plate and the scan was saved in high quality, it was possible to apply
    basic postprocessing methods, which are nowadays used for digital
    photography, and also apply special Noise Adaptive Fuzzy
    Equalization software developed by Professor Miloslav Druckmüller.
    Despite very inhomogeneous exposure of the plate and non-perfect
    removal of artifacts, fine details in the solar corona of the 1919
    eclipse have been preserved and revealed.
    The most notable feature is the huge prominence located close to
    the equatorial area of the Sun -- the largest prominence ever
    captured during a total solar eclipse. Also of note are structures
    typical of the uneven solar magnetic field. When such structures
    became more obvious, by defining the basic colors of known phenomena in
    the image (prominence, solar corona), it was then possible to colorize
    the final result and thus for the first time show this famous eclipse
    in a way never seen before.
    * Sobral, Brazil Coordinates: -3.6895, -40.3486

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    Sun Links

    * NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory
    * NASA Solar Eclipse Page
    * NOAA Solar Calculator
    * The Sun-Earth Connection: Heliophysics
    * The Sunspot Cycle
    * Solar System Exploration: The Sun
    * The Sun Now
    * This Week’s Sky

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 1 week, 3 days, 22 hours, 10 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Sat Jun 5 11:00:34 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    The Colorado Plateau and a Small Model of Subduction Compression

    June 04, 2021


    TomMc_EPOD.CottonwoodCanyonRoadUtah copy (005)

    TomMc_EPOD.DuctileAndBrittleFoldsPhylliteCT.WallRockB (005)

    Photographer: Thomas McGuire
    Summary Author: Thomas McGuire

    The cause of the uplift and the compressional features on the
    Colorado Plateau during the Laramide Orogeny (mountain building
    roughly 60 million years ago) were not understood until it was proposed
    that the Farallon Tectonic Plate is subducting at a low angle
    beneath the North American Plate. This is what raised the whole
    plateau. Additionally, compressional folding, including dozens
    of asymmetric folds ( Cockscomb, San Rafael Swell, Comb Ridge,
    Raplee Anticline, Waterpocket Fold, and many others) was caused by
    frictional drag with the remains of the subducting Farallon plate. Many
    of the folds are also related to sub-surface compressional
    faulting.

    Small scale rocks often reflect larger regional features. The top image
    is The Cockscomb monocline along Cottonwood Canyon Road in Arizona.
    The second image is a rock from Connecticut. What is now western New
    England was an area of subduction in the closing of the Ordovician
    Pre-Atlantic Iapetus Ocean (about 400 million years ago), which
    created the Pangea land mass. This rock is a smaller-scale model of
    the Colorado Plateau’s asymmetric compressional folds, like The
    Cockscomb. My drawing on the image shows how this smaller rock
    represents The Cockscomb (a penny is used for scale).


    Cottonwood Canyon Road, Arizona Coordinates: 37.306608, -111.886410


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    Geology Links

    * Earthquakes
    * Geologic Time
    * Geomagnetism
    * General Dictionary of Geology
    * Mineral and Locality Database
    * Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness
    * This Dynamic Earth
    * USGS
    * USGS Ask a Geologist
    * USGS/NPS Geologic Glossary
    * USGS Volcano Hazards Program

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 4 weeks, 1 day, 12 hours, 15 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Mon Jul 5 11:00:44 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Rainbows Over the Italian Shoreline

    July 05, 2021

    KSEO9220rinforz

    Photographer: Kevin Saragozza

    Summary Author: Marco Meniero, Cadan Cummings

    Rainbows are undoubtedly one of the atmospheric events that most
    strikes the human imagination. This photo of a double rainbow rising
    out of the sea was taken in the Province of Syracuse in Italy. The
    optics of rainbows was first studied by the mathematician René
    Descartes in 1637. From his work in physics, he understood the
    mechanism of light passing through water and mathematically determined
    the angular position of the primary rainbow (about 42 degrees from the
    center point of the rainbow or the antisolar point). The physicist
    Isaac Newton further advanced the science thirty years later when
    he observed light is reflected at various angles based on the different
    wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum: red at 42 degrees
    and violet at 40 degrees from the center of the arc. Advancing our
    understanding of optics and the Earth’s atmosphere, we now
    understand that rainbows consist of an arc with the colors of the
    visible spectrum from red to violet. These colorful arcs occur 39 to 43
    degrees from the antisolar point and are exactly opposite the position
    of the sun with regard to the viewer.

    A product of both reflectance and refraction, rainbows are formed
    when sunlight passes through a water droplet and the light is
    refracted, reflected, and then refracted again- like a prism. If two
    reflections occur in the water droplet, a second symmetrical
    rainbow is formed with a radius varying from 50 to 57 degrees from the
    antisolar point.

    Both the primary and secondary rainbow are clearly seen in this image.
    The image is very poetic and seems to recall the vision of navigators
    who went to sea following the atmospheric events without having the
    right scientific interpretation. Photo taken April 20, 2021.

    Photo data: Canon EOS R, 1/30 second exposure, 16mm, f/8, ISO 800
    * Augusta, Province of Syracuse, Italy Coordinates: 37.250000,
    15.216667

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    Atmospheric Effects Links

    * Atmospheric Optics
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    * Refraction Index
    * Image Gallery: Atmospheric Effects
    * What is a Rainbow?

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 8 weeks, 3 days, 12 hours, 15 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Thu Aug 5 11:00:26 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Fireflies and Star Trails in Italy

    August 05, 2021

    StarStaX_IMG_6412-IMG_6613_lighten(2)

    Photographer: Elena Paschetto

    Summary Author: Elena Paschetto; Cadan Cummings

    This composite image consisting of 197 long-exposure photos features
    star trails and fireflies taken on a summer night in
    Sanfront, Italy. Fireflies emit light in the 510-610 nm portion of
    the visible spectrum. This bioluminescent light is used by
    fireflies, or lightning bugs, to attract mates. Bioluminescence is
    produced when calcium, oxygen, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a
    chemical luciferin combine in the presence of the enzyme
    luciferase. The resulting chemical reaction creates an excited energy
    state that emits light and slowly dims as the reaction uses up its
    available ATP and oxygen. There are approximately 2,000 firefly species
    in the family Lampyridae worldwide. Some types of fireflies are
    crepuscular and prefer to only come out at dusk / dawn to limit the
    chance of being eaten by nocturnal predators, while others choose to
    fly around later at night in complete darkness. As a result, fireflies
    pair well with night sky viewing since you can watch in wonderment the
    blinking light of the fireflies and the counterclockwise motion of the
    stars across the sky. Photos taken on June 12, 2021.

    Photo data: Canon EOS 80D; Wide-angle Lens, 14mm, ISO 800, f/3.5, 10
    second exposure, 197 photos processed using StarStaX
    * Sanfront, Italy Coordinates: 44.647, 7.320

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    Animal Links

    * Animal Diversity Web
    * ARKive
    * BirdLife International
    * Bug Guide
    * Discover Life
    * Integrated Taxonomic Information System
    * Microbial Life Resources
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the
    -
    Universities Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 12 weeks, 6 days, 12 hours, 15 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Tue Oct 5 11:00:26 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Alluring Views of Saturn Nearing Time of Opposition

    October 05, 2021

    6a0105371bb32c970b0282e1184c2d200b

    Photographer: Marek Stromayer

    Summary Author: Marek Stromayer; Cadan Cummings

    The picture above of Saturn was captured on July 18, 2021 in St.
    Petersburg, Florida using a ZWO ASI224MC camera mounted to a Celestron
    130 SLT telescope and a EQ6-R Pro computerized mount. The timing of the
    photo above coincided with Saturn nearing its date of opposition,
    which occurred exactly two weeks later on August 1-2, 2021. The next
    opposition for Saturn will occur on August 14, 2022. Saturn has been a
    favorite night sky sight for astronomers for centuries. Known as one of
    the five “ wandering stars” (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn)
    to ancient civilizations, Saturn was first observed through a telescope
    in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. Although Galileo was the first to see
    the planet’s disk, it took a further 50 years for astronomer
    Christiaan Huygens to discover the planet possessed its iconic
    rings. In more recent years, astronomers have focused on studying the
    many Moons of Saturn. As recent as 2019, a group of 20 new objects were
    discovered, bringing the official number to 82 confirmed Moons.
    However, only around 13 of these Moons have diameters larger than 31
    miles (50 kilometers). Look for Saturn currently in the constellation
    Capricornus.

    Photo details: Celestron 130 SLT telescope, EQ6-R Pro computerized
    mount, ZWO ASI224MC camera, ZWO ADC dispersion corrector, processed
    using Autostakkert and Registax
    * St. Petersburg, Florida Coordinates: 27.7676, -82.640

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    Night Sky Links

    * Space Weather Live
    * Space Weather Live Forum
    * About the Moon
    * American Meteor Society
    * Arbeitskreises Meteore e.V.
    * Global City Lights
    * Heavens Above Home Page
    * The International Meteor Organization
    * Lunar and Planetary Institute
    * MoonConnection
    * NASA Eclipse Web Page
    * Understanding The Moon Phases

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 4 weeks, 4 days, 21 hours, 55 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Fri Nov 5 11:00:32 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    A Bison at Home on Yellowstone’s Range

    November 05, 2021

    20210904_104427

    Photographer: Angela Harris

    Summary Author: Angela Harris & Ray Boren

    A living symbol and icon of Yellowstone National Park, a solo
    American bison bull ( Bison bison) also popularly known as a
    buffalo, strolls a grassy stretch along the beautiful and serene
    Madison River, in a photograph taken on Sept. 4, 2021.

    Bison — the largest wild mammal in North America — have roamed the
    Yellowstone region in northwestern Wyoming and sections of Montana
    and Idaho, in an unbroken stretch for thousands of years. The
    National Park Service counted 4,680 individuals in the summer of
    2020, in two primary herds. Feeding primarily on grasses and
    sedges, the males of the species (bulls) weigh up to 2,000 pounds (900
    kg), while females (cows) weigh about 1,000 pounds (450 kg). Generally
    social animals, they congregate during the breeding season to attract
    mates, but mature males separate from the herds following courtship and
    tend to spend autumn and winter alone or in smaller groups.

    The Madison River, along which this bison is grazing, flows
    westward here, but its waters will ultimately end up south in the Gulf
    of Mexico. The Continental Divide is complicated in Yellowstone,
    with some of its waters heading toward the Pacific Ocean via the Snake
    and Columbia river systems, and others rivers flow toward the Atlantic
    Ocean and related basins. The Madison, 183 miles (295 km) long, joins
    to the north with the Jefferson and Gallatin rivers at Three Forks,
    Montana, to form the Missouri River, which eventually merges with the
    Mississippi River.
    * Yellowstone National Park, Coordinates: 44.6527, -111.0179

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    Animal Links

    * Animal Diversity Web
    * ARKive
    * BirdLife International
    * Bug Guide
    * Discover Life
    * Integrated Taxonomic Information System
    * Microbial Life Resources
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the
    -
    Universities Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 9 weeks, 21 hours, 55 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)
  • From Black Panther@21:1/186 to All on Sun Dec 5 11:00:32 2021
    EPOD - a service of USRA

    The Earth Science Picture of the Day (EPOD) highlights the diverse processes and phenomena which shape our planet and our lives. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory
    captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The
    community is invited to contribute digital imagery, short captions and
    relevant links.


    Archive - Amboseli National Park, Kenya

    December 04, 2021

    6a0105371bb32c970b017d42e93ca3970c

    Every weekend we present a notable item from our archives.

    This EPOD was originally published May 13, 2013.

    Photographer: Sheyenne Scriven
    Summary Author: Sheyenne Scriven; Jim Foster

    The photo above showing a small herd of elephants in Amboseli
    National Park, Kenya, was taken in late December 2010. Snowcapped
    Mount Kilimanjaro (located across the border of Kenya in Tanzania)
    looms in the background. Kilimanjaro, a dormant stratovolcano
    topping 19,039 ft (5,803 m), is the highest mountain on the African
    continent. Despite the arid conditions pictured above, December is
    usually a rather rainy month in east Africa. However, the long
    rainy season on Kilimanjaro begins in March and lasts early June --
    this is when most of the snowfall is observed.
    African elephants are the largest land animals on Earth. The
    biggest tuskers may stand 13 ft (4 m) tall, weigh as much as 14,000 lbs
    (6,350 kg) and require 300 lbs (136 kg) of food such as bark,
    leaves, fruit and roots each day to sustain them.

    Photo details: Camera Maker: OLYMPUS IMAGING CORP.; Camera Model:
    u7000,S7000; Focal Length: 9.1mm (35mm equivalent: 52mm); Aperture:
    f/4.3; Exposure Time: 0.0020 s (1/500); ISO equiv: 64.
    * Amboseli National Park, Kenya Coordinates: -2.641389, 37.248056

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    Geology Links

    * Earthquakes
    * Geologic Time
    * Geomagnetism
    * General Dictionary of Geology
    * Mineral and Locality Database
    * Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness
    * This Dynamic Earth
    * USGS
    * USGS Ask a Geologist
    * USGS/NPS Geologic Glossary
    * USGS Volcano Hazards Program

    -
    Earth Science Picture of the Day is a service of the Universities
    Space Research Association.

    https://epod.usra.edu

    --- up 20 hours, 43 minutes
    * Origin: -=> Castle Rock BBS <=- Now Husky HPT Powered! (21:1/186)